Horace 3 13 Analysis Essay

PMLA

Description:PMLA is the journal of the Modern Language Association of America. Since 1884, PMLA has published members' essays judged to be of interest to scholars and teachers of language and literature. Four issues each year (January, March, May, and October) contain essays on language and literature; a Directory issue (September) lists all members and the names and addresses of department and program administrators; and the November issue presents the program for the association's annual convention. Each issue of PMLA is mailed to over 29,000 MLA members and to 2,900 libraries worldwide.

Coverage: 1889-2012 (Vol. 4 - Vol. 127, No. 5)

Moving Wall: 5 years (What is the moving wall?)

The "moving wall" represents the time period between the last issue available in JSTOR and the most recently published issue of a journal. Moving walls are generally represented in years. In rare instances, a publisher has elected to have a "zero" moving wall, so their current issues are available in JSTOR shortly after publication.
Note: In calculating the moving wall, the current year is not counted.
For example, if the current year is 2008 and a journal has a 5 year moving wall, articles from the year 2002 are available.

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ISSN: 00308129

Subjects: Language & Literature, Humanities

Collections: Arts & Sciences III Collection, JSTOR Essential Collection, Language & Literature Collection

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Quintus Horatius Flaccus (Horace) was an important Ancient Roman poet. He was closely integrated into Roman society, as he joined Brutus' army, before becoming a highly respected scribe and poet. He was also well educated, as he studied in Rome as well as Athens. Horace's poetry provides great insight into the late Roman Republic.

A key mode adopted by Horace is autobiographical poetry. By speaking of his father, a freedman, Horace raises idead regarding freedom and enslavement. His poetry also evokes key Roman values, such as 'pietas' (piety), 'libertas' (freedom), 'dignitas' (dignity) and 'virtus' (manliness).

Horace's early poetry was written during the Triumviral period. This context of civil war strongly impacted his poems. His earliest poetry was a collection of 17 epodes, iambic poems written during the 1st century BCE. These poems are highly critical attacks on society. In this way, Horace was a 'vate', a poet whose role is to warn and encourage the people. He also wrote a series of satires, exploring society's ills such as foolish pride and excessive ambition. The overall message of his poetry in this period is that moderation is the key to happiness.

Horace also wrote poetry during the reign of Augustus. His poetry was iconoclastic and subversive. During the war against Rome and Egypt, he wrote poems which praised Cleopatra's nobility ("no sign of womanish fear"). These poems also alluded to Rome's arrogance in victory.

Horace's poetry was also strongly influenced by dominant philosophical moments, such as Epicureanism, the belief that individuals should abstain from politics and religion.

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