Vps Level 4 Homework Answers

VPS Wage Rates

The Victorian Public Sector Career Structure Salary Bands

Most CPSU members are covered by the Victorian Public Sector Agreement. The newest agreement, the Victorian Public Sector Enterprise Agreement 2016 sets out salaries and salary increases until 31 December 2019.

 

 

 


 

VPS SALARIES Effective 1 Jul 2016

Grades with Value Ranges and Progression

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Grade 7

$148,819 - $202,396

Value Range 3

[~$5,553 Progression Amounts]

$202,396

^

$184,538

ValueRange2

[~$5,553 Progression Amounts]

$184,538

^

$166,681

ValueRange1

[~$5,553 Progression Amounts]

$166,677

^

$148,819

Grade 6

$109,567 - $146,622

ValueRange2

[~$3,381 Progression Amounts]

$146,622

^

^

$128,096

Value Range 1

[~$3,381 Progression Amounts]

$128,095

^

^

$109,567

Grade 5

$89,327 - $108,078

ValueRange2

[~$2,678 Progression Amounts]

$108,078

^

$98,704

ValueRange1

[~$2,678 Progression Amounts]

$98,702

^

$89,327

Grade 4

$77,418 - $87,838

Value Range 4.1

[~$1,736 Progression Steps]

$87,838

$86,102

$84,366

$82,627

$80,891

$79,156

$77,418

Grade 3

$62,535 - $75,930

ValueRange3.2

[~$1,340 Progression Steps]

$75,930

$74,590

$73,252

$71,912

$70,572

ValueRange3.1

[~$1,341 Progression Steps]

$69,233

$67,892

$66,554

$65,215

$63,875

$62,535

Grade 2

$47,655 - $61,196

ValueRange2.2

[~$966 Progression Steps]

$61,196

$60,230

$59,260

$58,294

$57,326

$56,360

$55,392

ValueRange2.1

[~$967 Progression Steps]

$54,425

$53,458

$52,491

$51,522

$50,557

$49,588

$48,621

47,655

Grade 1

$43,488 - $46,164

ValueRange1.1

[~$892 Progression Steps]

$46,164

$45,272

$44,380

$43,488

 


 

VPS SALARIES Effective 1 Jan 2017

Grades with Value Ranges and Progression

[Back to Index]

Grade 7

$151,423 - $205,938

Value Range 3

[~$5,650 Progression Amounts]

$205,938

^

$187,767

ValueRange2

[~$5,650 Progression Amounts]

$187,767

^

$169,598

ValueRange1

[~$5,650 Progression Amounts]

$169,594

^

$151,423

Grade 6

$111,484 - $149,188

ValueRange2

[~$3,440 Progression Amounts]

$149,188

^

^

$130,338

Value Range 1

[~$3,440 Progression Amounts]

$130,337

^

^

$111,484

Grade 5

$90,890 - $109,969

ValueRange2

[~$2,725 Progression Amounts]

$109,969

^

$100,431

ValueRange1

[~$2,725 Progression Amounts]

$100,429

^

$90,890

Grade 4

$78,773 - $89,375

Value Range 4.1

[~$1,766 Progression Steps]

$89,375

$87,609

$85,842

$84,073

$82,307

$80,541

$78,773

Grade 3

$63,629 - $77,259

ValueRange3.2

[~$1,364 Progression Steps]

$77,259

$75,895

$74,534

$73,170

$71,807

ValueRange3.1

[~$1,365 Progression Steps]

$70,445

$69,080

$67,719

$66,356

$64,993

$63,629

Grade 2

$48,489 - $62,267

ValueRange2.2

[~$983 Progression Steps]

$62,267

$61,284

$60,297

$59,314

$58,329

$57,346

$56,361

ValueRange2.1

[~$983 Progression Steps]

$55,377

$54,394

$53,410

$52,424

$51,442

$50,456

$49,472

$48,489

Grade 1

$44,249 - $46,972

ValueRange1.1

[~$908 Progression Steps]

$46,972

$46,064

$45,157

$44,249

 


 

VPS SALARIES Effective 1 Jul 2017

Grades with Value Ranges and Progression

[Back to Index]

Grade 7

$153,694 - $209,027

Value Range 3

[~$5,735 Progression Amounts]

$209,027

^

$190,584

ValueRange2

[~$5,735 Progression Amounts]

$190,584

^

$172,142

ValueRange1

[~$5,735 Progression Amounts]

$172,138

^

$153,694

Grade 6

$113,156 - $151,426

ValueRange2

[~$3,492 Progression Amounts]

$151,426

^

^

$132,293

Value Range 1

[~$3,492 Progression Amounts]

$132,292

^

^

$113,156

Grade 5

$92,253 - $111,619

ValueRange2

[~$2,766 Progression Amounts]

$111,619

^

$101,937

ValueRange1

[~$2,766 Progression Amounts]

$101,935

^

$92,253

Grade 4

$79,955 - $90,716

Value Range 4.1

[~$1,793 Progression Steps]

$90,716

$88,923

$87,130

$85,334

$83,542

$81,749

$79,955

Grade 3

$64,583 - $78,418

ValueRange3.2

[~$1,385 Progression Steps]

$78,418

$77,033

$75,652

$74,268

$72,884

ValueRange3.1

[~$1,386 Progression Steps]

$71,502

$70,116

$68,735

$67,351

$65,968

$64,583

Grade 2

$49,216 - $63,201

ValueRange2.2

[~$998 Progression Steps]

$63,201

$62,203

$61,201

$60,204

$59,204

$58,206

$57,206

ValueRange2.1

[~$998 Progression Steps]

$56,208

$55,210

$54,211

$53,210

$52,214

$51,213

$50,214

$49,216

Grade 1

$44,913 - $47,677

ValueRange1.1

[~$922 Progression Steps]

$47,677

$46,755

$45,834

$44,913

 


 

VPS SALARIES Effective 1 Jan 2018

Grades with Value Ranges and Progression

[Back to Index]

Grade 7

$156,384 - $212,685

Value Range 3

[~$5,835 Progression Amounts]

$212,685

^

$193,919

ValueRange2

[~$5,835 Progression Amounts]

$193,919

^

$175,154

ValueRange1

[~$5,835 Progression Amounts]

$175,150

^

$156,384

Grade 6

$115,136 - $154,076

ValueRange2

[~$3,553 Progression Amounts]

$154,076

^

^

$134,608

Value Range 1

[~$3,553 Progression Amounts]

$134,607

^

^

$115,136

Grade 5

$93,867 - $113,572

ValueRange2

[~$2,814 Progression Amounts]

$113,572

^

$103,721

ValueRange1

[~$2,814 Progression Amounts]

$103,719

^

$93,867

Grade 4

$81,354 - $92,304

Value Range 4.1

[~$1,825 Progression Steps]

$92,304

$90,479

$88,655

$86,827

$85,004

$83,180

$81,354

Grade 3

$65,713 - $79,790

ValueRange3.2

[~$1,409 Progression Steps]

$79,790

$78,381

$76,976

$75,568

$74,159

ValueRange3.1

[~$1,410 Progression Steps]

$72,753

$71,343

$69,938

$68,530

$67,122

$65,713

Grade 2

$50,077 - $64,307

ValueRange2.2

[~$1015 Progression Steps]

$64,307

$63,292

$62,272

$61,258

$60,240

$59,225

$58,207

ValueRange2.1

[~$1016 Progression Steps]

$57,192

$56,176

$55,160

$54,141

$53,128

$52,109

$51,093

$50,077

Grade 1

$45,699 - $48,511

ValueRange1.1

[~$938 Progression Steps]

$48,511

$46,755

$46,636

$45,699

 


At several recent meetings people have asked “Why is PaaS is better than shared hosting or Virtual Private Servers (VPS)?”

Shared hosting and VPS have been around for a long time and served us well, so why change something that works? Well, imagine you are driving an Audi A8 from 1997…wouldn’t it be nice to upgrade your ride to the most recent version? Sure, it will cost you something, but it will be more luxurious and many manual actions will now be automated. We can look at PaaS in a similar way. It will cost you something to move from shared hosting or VPS to PaaS, but in return you’ll get a great deal of luxury you have not been accustomed to until now.

Here are five reasons why PaaS is a better solution.

1. Security (shared hosting)

With shared hosting, everything runs in one shared environment. Best case scenario you get your own system user and your application is slightly isolated. In the best case SELinux policies are in place to secure your applications. In many cases, shared hosting providers nowadays run a single Apache server to serve PHP applications for many clients. What could possibly go wrong? It’s just simple PHP. Well…you know…A LOT!

Sure there are (even prominent) PaaS providers who do not focus much on security. One possible example is multi-tenant databases. SQL databases have proven to be quite solid in this area, however, many newcomers (especially among the NoSQL crowd) do not have a proven record for such installations. Generally, for most PaaS offerings, it’s a question of money, not technology. By providing multi-tenant servers (application, database, etc.) the provider saves resources and thus money. This opens up a possible attack vector.

OpenShift strives to provide as secure an environment as possible. Security is one of our top concerns. Sadly we have frequently requested features from users we can’t put into production now for security reasons. OpenShift tries to be as flexible as possible and provide great features, but this cannot come by lowering the security of users.

So, what does OpenShift do? Well, as mentioned above, OpenShift does not provide multi-tenant servers. Yes, the cost is slightly higher, but it closes a possible attack vectors that could affect users. Whenever you deploy to any gear (server), it’s yours alone and no one else can access it. This also provides OpenShift with the possibility to expose per-user configuration for the server. For example, take the JBoss Application server. The whole standalone.xml file is accessible and editable by users, and thus the user is in full control of the application server. OpenShift could share one instance for many users, but isn’t this approach better?

All processes deployed by a user on OpenShift are isolated in something that we call a gear. It’s a container where your servers are isolated from those of other users. This provides you with higher security because programs run by one user cannot interfere with any programs run by other users. Even though these processes are run on a single operating system, they cannot see each other.

Every container has restricted system resources it’s allowed to consume. If a process misbehaves in the container, it can’t go outside the container to affect other containers. OpenShift attempts to temper the process (eventually kill it) so it does not steal resources from other processes.

Finally, all files are secured using SELinux with a quota to prevent containers from consuming all the disk space in the system. Every container has its own enforced quota. SELinux isolates file-system resources from users, so data from one user cannot be seen by any other user on the same system.

PaaS systems, compared to shared hosting, provide a higher degree of security. In my experience, when shared hosting provides this kind of security, it’s more of a platform than shared hosting. You should keep a close eye on the security-related aspects of your PaaS system. Do not believe marketing hype and do your own research. Security (which goes hand in hand with resource allocation) is one of the most important considerations when moving to production. Do not underestimate it.

As I usually say, “There is no absolutely secure system. It’s just a matter of the resources the attacker can commit to the attack.” OpenShift raises the required cost of attacks again and again to give you peace of mind.

2. Multi-tenancy (VPS)

In the previous section I explained how multi-tenancy is bad and now I am listing it as a positive? Is this a contradiction? I don’t think so and I will explain why. I believe multi-tenancy at the application level is a security issue. If you believe multi-tenancy at the operating system level is a problem though, then you need to use VPS and that’s it. If you believe multi-tenancy at the hardware level is a problem, then you have to get rid of virtualization. Nowadays, virtualization is considered stable and secure. Operating level virtualization (containers) have evolved to the point where we believe they are secure too.

When OpenShift started, there was no standard for containers so we implemented our own. Now, there is Docker, which is globally accepted as a standard. OpenShift and Red Hat are committed to it. Docker is an intergral part of the next major release of OpenShift, but that’s still in the future. Today we use SELinux, cgroups, Linux quotas, and kernel namespaces to separate containers from each other. These technologies are battle-tested and secure. We believe this combination is secure and it’s why we use multi-tenancy at the operating system level.

Multi-tenancy at the operating system level provides resource savings. The density of applications deployed on one operating system is much higher when using containers, because you can reuse the same system with many of them. It’s like virtualization, but with applications instead of operating systems. With higher density comes lower cost.

PaaS saves you money by providing a higher density deployment environment compared to running a VPS for every application. But I can hear you arguing already…”I can deploy my own containers on my own VPS and get the same benefits”. Hehe, got ya! Right? No! Let’s move to the next point.

3. System management (VPS)

PaaS bring the benefit of outsourcing system management. PaaS manages the operating system so you don’t need to. You just use it, as a service. Well, if you are curious dig into the source code and see for yourself how the platform works. What? Did I hear you correctly? Your platform is not open source? Please, do yourself a favor and move to one that is.

Yes, you can run your own system, manage the containers, and be in full control… but is it worth the time and energy required? A lot of development effort is going into different PaaS systems that are open source. I can only speak authoritatively about OpenShift, to which you are invited to contribute. Don’t like something? Want to see something implemented? Send OpenShift a pull request and you can get it. OpenShift is very open to contributions and provides a very permissive license (Apache2) so everyone to benefits from collaboration.

But back to system management. With a VPS you need to manage and maintain the system: update packages, apply security patches, etc. None of this is needed with PaaS. PaaS comes with pre-configured environments, which you are free to change or reconfigure, and handles all the aspects of managing them. You as a customer have only one task–developing your application–the platform takes care of the rest.

Here’s how simple it is to deploy a PHP application with OpenShift:

rhc app create testapp php-5.4 mysql-5.1 cd testapp # copy my code here git add -A . git commit -m "Adding my application" git push

That’s all. Now you have a running application in the cloud. How difficult would this be with a VPS? I will leave this to you as homework, but I am sure that even with some configuration management tool like Puppet or Salt, it would be much more complex than this. And don’t forget, you still get the benefits of multi-tenancy and security.

4. Scalability

Let’s look into the future of your project. You’re starting out small now but maybe you’ll capture attention and become popular. Your audience will grow, and you will need more resources for you application. How simple is that?

Shared hosting requires you to move to bigger boxes and scale vertically, with your provider supplying bigger and bigger boxes until there is no more room for growth. Not a bright future, right?

With VPS, you can get bigger and bigger boxes and again scale vertically until you hit the same problems as shared hosting. With VPS you can also scale horizontally. You surely know how this goes –add a load-balancer and sync the files. Hmm, well, now the database too, so let’s set up some replication. Oh snap, let’s do some sharding. Oh, I need some shared storage. And on and on it goes. You will hit the system configuration problem–do you really need or want to handle all this stuff yourself?

Most PaaS systems allow you to scale your application with a command line tool or web interface. The platform deploys and configures new containers, starts the application, and reconfigures the load-balancer to make use of the new deployments. With databases, the platform configures the new node for your system, reconfigures the cluster, and syncs your data. Keep in mind all this done for you by by issuing a few command like “scale up” or “scale down.”

Some platforms (like OpenShift) auto-scale your application. You set the limits on how the platform utilizes your resources and it does its best to scale your application up and down to accommodate incoming load from users. With OpenShift, you set scale up and down events specific to your needs.

5. Encourages Best practices

I believe encouraging best practices is the important aspect of PaaS. It makes you think differently and encourages you to build applications with scalability and elasticity in mind. Sometimes this takes more time and increases complexity, but it saves you pain in the long run.

If you read the previous sections carefully, you’ll notice I never mentioned vertical scaling for PaaS. This was intentional. Vertical scaling is something that should be avoided on PaaS (or as it’s fashionable to say now — at internet scale).

File systems are one of the most challenging things to scale. OpenShift allows you to use the file system for persistent data if you create a non-scalable application. This makes sense–if you do not scale the app, you do not need to scale the file system–ergo, there is no problem. Once you enable application scaling things change.

Imagine deploying your application four times with a load balancer in front of it. Let’s say you have sticky sessions and every request goes to the same node. Whenever a user uploads a file it’s written to a file system. With the sticky sessions, the single user sees a consistent state. Without them, even the same user will see inconsistencies since a request could be sent to different nodes and the file would only on one of them.

One solution is a shared file system. For a long time we’ve have NFS, and now distributed file systems are all the rage with Gluster (Red Hat project) and Ceph (recently acquired by Red Hat). These systems allow us to have a consistent file system distributed among the nodes. There are reasons (currently) why these file systems can’t be used with PaaS without experienceing adverse performance, security or both. So, how can PaaS be better with these limitations?

PaaS is better because it encourages developers to think and work differently. There is no need to save a file to a file system, you can use external service like S3 by Amazon and outsource the file management to a specialized provider. Service like this can handled storage magnitudes larger than you’d ever want to manage–TBs or PBs–while also giving you integrated CDN providing a better user experience. With this approach, you’re closer to a service-based architecture and your application is more environment agnostic.

Conclusion

Hopefully I’ve managed to persuade you to try PaaS (preferably OpenShift ;). With OpenShift I am confident you will discover the benefits for yourself. In this article I covered only a few benefits I thought were most important. I wish you good luck choosing your next deployment environment.

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