Globalization Pro Contra Essays

GLOBALIZATION AND THE CHALLENGES OF THE NEW CENTURY: A READER.

Edited by Patrick O'Meara, Howard D. Mehlinger and Matthew Krain.

Indiana University Press; 576 pages; $49.95 ($19.95 paperback) and £34 (£13.50 paperback)

IF YOU want to catch up on some of the best articles written about globalisation since the topic became fashionable several years ago, this reader is the place to start. Meant for students, it pulls together pieces from such different sources as Atlantic Monthly and the Harvard Business Review. It ranges from Samuel Huntingdon's influential essay in Foreign Affairs,“The Clash of Civilisations” (1993), to an article on “The Promise of Genetics” from the Futurist in 1997. Organised by topic (including conflict and security; democracy; economic integration) the book is pleasingly eclectic. For a radical perspective, you can read, for instance, the manifesto of the Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement of Peru. The book also has a brief guide to globalisation resources on the web.

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THE MYSTERY OF CAPITAL. By Hernando de Soto. Basic Books; 276 pages; $27.50. Bantam Press; £15

GLOBALISATION, say its critics, leaves the poor behind. Without capital, you cannot gain from integration. And the poor have next to no capital. In this fascinating book, Hernando de Soto, an expert from Peru on informal economies, agrees and disagrees. Poverty is not due to lack of capital as such, he argues, but to lack of usable capital. The poor in backward countries have assets. But these often take “dead” or defective forms: for instance, houses on land without clear title, which cannot be used as collateral for loans. From his grass-roots research, Mr de Soto estimates that the value of property held, but not legally owned, by poor people in developing and former communist countries is almost $10 trillion—more than 20 times the direct foreign investment these countries have had since 1989.

Unlike the rich world, with its comprehensive networks that track and protect property (contracts, titles, deeds, public record keepers and so forth), poor countries must often rely also on informal systems that work “extralegally”. To become usable as economic capital, extralegal assets must be absorbed into the formal system, as they were, for example, in 19th-century America. It will not be easy. But after reading this book, it is hard not to feel hopeful about the potential waiting to be tapped in poor countries.

RUNAWAY WORLD: HOW GLOBALIZATION IS RESHAPING OUR LIVES. By Anthony Giddens. Routledge; 128 pages; $17.95. Profile; £6.99 (paperback)

THIS thoughtful essay is about modernity as such, not just the economic sort. Each of its five parts—on globalisation, risk, tradition, family and democracy—is an intellectual nugget. The world is no riskier than it used to be, Mr Giddens believes; but contemporary risks—ecological calamity or financial meltdown, for example—tend to be man-made. Modernity means progress; but abandoning traditions also brings addictions and compulsions, as well as fundamentalism, a form of beleaguered tradition.

On democracy, Mr Giddens notes that, though it is spreading to new lands, it is meeting with signs of disillusion in older ones: fewer people vote; more and more claim not to care about politics; interest in non-governmental solutions is on the rise. Democracy, Mr Giddens argues, needs to be “democratised”. By this he means devolving power, fostering “civic culture” and making transnational bodies such as the European Union more open and accountable. Mr Giddens covers so much in so few pages that his conclusions can often sound contentious or trite. But the issues he raises are always thought-provoking.

GLOBAL FORTUNE: THE STUMBLE AND RISE OF WORLD CAPITALISM. Edited by Ian Vasquez. Cato Institute; 295 pages; $18.95 ($9.95 paperback)

THIS collection is less an analysis than a celebration of global economic integration. Published by the Cato Institute, America's leading libertarian think-tank, “Global Fortune” contains essays by writers from four continents. They argue bracingly that market economics offers the best hope for world prosperity. The problem, they think, is not too much integration, but too little faith in liberal institutions.

For Mario Vargas Llosa, a Peruvian novelist and right-wing politician, globalisation offers opportunities to expand pluralism, legality and liberty. Deepak Lal, a top development economist, sees no necessary link between democracy and development. But he offers a robust demolition of the argument that there is a “third way” between capitalism and socialism.

Other authors argue that countries recently hit by crisis—in East Asia, for instance—were afflicted not by global forces but by the wrong kind of government intervention. The book takes a similar line with the world financial system: problems arise not from market failure but from meddling in markets by, for example, the IMF. These essays do not allow for nuance and not all of them are convincing. But they offer robust replies to many of the cruder anti-globalisation arguments.

GLOBAL FINANCEAT RISK: THE CASEFOR INTERNATIONAL REGULATION. By John Eatwell and Lance Taylor. The New Press; 258 pages; $22.95 and £16.95

AN OPPOSITE plea, for more not less international financial regulation, is made by John Eatwell of Cambridge University and Lance Taylor of New York's New School for Social Research. Based on a study for the Ford Foundation, “Global Finance at Risk” argues that integration, for all its benefits, has weakened national financial regulation without providing a satisfactory alternative.

In a world of floating currencies, they argue, financial markets are not self-regulating, pointing to derivative-related collapses and to currency crises in developing countries. To the charge that their idea for a World Financial Authority is Utopian, they reply, perhaps so, but insist it is still worth identifying the regulatory tasks which they claim “need to be done by somebody”.

This article appeared in the Books and arts section of the print edition

Our world is shrinking every day – how do you like it?

From the telegraph to the internet, from rails to jumbo jets, advances in communication and travel technology have connected people across the globe. Some of these connections have promoted prosperity while others have been problematic. For better or worse, globalization is a complex topic, and if you’re writing a pros and cons essay about it, you’ll want to make sure you find good sources to back up your ideas.

In this blog post, I’ll provide 20globalization articles to help you get started.

But before we dive in, let’s focus on some key considerations for writing about this topic.

Much Ado About a Complex Issue

So you want to write about globalization? Writing about complex issues means that you have to go the extra mile in order to write an equally complex and well-crafted essay. A pros and cons essay requires an argumentative approach, so it’s a good idea to first know the purpose behind your approach before hammering out a first draft.

The Argumentative/Research Approach:

Think about a part of globalization that interests you. What major question do you have about this part of the topic? Trying to answer this question is where you start your research. The answer that you come up with and will support throughout the essay will be your thesis.

Otherwise, you may already have some ideas about the topic and want to persuade your audience to accept a claim you make. This claim (or thesis) also needs to be supported by evidence, which is why you’ll still need to research the topic.

Pro or Con?

Time to apply your critical thinking skills! While your paper will focus on both the pro and con sides of the globalization debate, just make sure you avoid the pitfalls of being too simplistic or vague.

For example, if you approach one of the problems with globalization, you don’t want to just write, “Globalization is bad.” Instead, you want your thesis to dig into a specific part of globalization’s context. A better thesis might look like this:

Increased globalization has created a large outsourcing market that attracts U.S. companies with the prospect of cheap labor, but in turn, quality industrial production has vastly declined due to lax regulations.

See how specific that is? Give your audience both a specific problem and the reason that problem is significant, and you’ll be off to a great start!

Quality Control

Knowing your approach and having a solid thesis are both important for a strong start, but you also need to support your essay with quality sources to help you get to the finish line. Depending on your instructor’s expectations, you can use both popular and scholarly sources. Whatever the case, you want to make sure your research is credible. If you need some extra help, try applying the CRAAP test to each of your sources before you decide to use them.

The Articles

Okay – no more messing around! Following are 20globalization articles to help you get started in supporting your pros and cons essay. I’ve organized these into three categories for you: “Pro,” “Neutral,” and “Anti.” You can use neutral articles for either a “pro” or “con” approach because they are more informative and address both globalization’s positive and negative effects.

I’ve also included an MLA citation for each article. If you use it, make sure to change the access date! Or, if your assignment requires it, you might want to use an APA citation instead.

5 Pro-Globalization Articles

Pro-Globalization Article 1:“What Globalization Really Means”

This article discusses how Peter Drucker’s claims about globalization’s evolution have become reality. Its author, Rick Wartzman, looks at how major global corporations have improved economic status and stability for other countries while promoting an overall stronger globalized market. This article specifically covers the rise of Bo Andersson in the global auto industry and how his involvement has led to greater manufacturing accountability and profits.

MLA Citation  

Wartzman, Rick. “What Globalization Really Means”TIME.com. Time, Inc., 23 Oct. 2013. Web. 28 May 2015.

Pro-Globalization Article 2:“Global flows in a digital age”

This article highlights a research study conducted by economists at the McKinsey Global Institute. The research favors globalization’s contribution to the world GDP and argues why it is necessary to maintain this trend. There is useful chart detailing various countries’ global flows and a link to the full 180-page research study in the article.

MLA Citation

Manyika, James, et al. “Global Flows in a Digital Age.” McKinsey.com. McKinsey & Company, Apr. 2014. Web. 28 May 2015.

Pro-Globalization Article 3:“Academic Globalization Should Be Welcomed, Not Feared”

Ben Wildavsky, a senior scholar in Research and Policy at the Kauffman Foundation, talks about why academic globalization should be encouraged, particularly because an increased global intelligence is beneficial for the entire world. Wildavsky balances his argument by first addressing his audience’s concerns about import education and export talent issues, so this article will be useful if you’re looking to provide solid pathos to your paper.

MLA Citation

Wildavsky, Ben. “Academic Globalization Should Be Welcomed, Not Feared.” Brookings.edu. The Brookings Institution, 15 Jan. 2010. Web. 28 May 2015.

Pro-Globalization Article 4:“The globalization of football: a study in the glocalization of the ‘serious life’”

Richard Giulianotti and Roland Robertson provide interesting and unique insights about how globalization, particularly in sports, can promote a greater “global democracy.” While much of this article focuses on the positive cultural impacts of globalization, rather than economic ones, the information favors global expansion and builds a strong case that is aptly reinforced with sound resources.

MLA Citation

Giulianotti, Richard, and Roland Roberts. “The globalization of football: a study in the glocalization of the ‘serious life’.” The British Journal of Sociology 55.4 (2004): 545-568. Web. 28 May 2015.

Pro-Globalization Article 5:“Globalization and Wealth Creation in Developing Countries”

This article offers a solid overview of how globalization has increased income in certain countries through industrialization and trade. While the author, Nigel Hogan, recognizes that there are issues in wealth equality for different countries, he puts up a sound argument backed by strong sources that globalization can be seen as a force of economic good.

MLA Citation

Hogan, Nigel. “Globalization and Wealth Creation in Developing Countries.” E-International Relations Students. E-International Relations, 9 June 2012. Web. 28 May 2015.

5 Neutral Globalization Articles

Neutral Globalization Article 1:“The Good, The Bad, And The Ugly Side Of Globalization”

Forbes contributor, Panos Mourdoukoutas, offers an interesting introduction to the ups and downs of globalization’s economic effects. The article is organized into concise paragraphs that break down the benefits and problems associated with globalization and the world market, and Mourdoukoutas also projects what happens when the issues with globalization become prevalent.

MLA Citation

Mourdoukoutas, Panos. “The Good, The Bad, And The Ugly Side Of Globalization.” Forbes. Forbes.com LLC., 13 Apr. 2015. Web. 28 May 2015.

Neutral Globalization Article 2:“Globalization: Progress Or Profiteering?”

Financial specialist, Lisa Smith, takes an informative approach to how globalization affects different social classes in both host and outsource countries. He provides useful comprehensive links to definitions of key terms such as international trade and outsourcing. There are also links to other articles that deal with similar topics.

MLA Citation

Smith, Lisa. “Globalization: Progress Or Profiteering?” Investopedia. Investopedia, LLC., 28 Jan. 2007. Web. 28 May 2015.

Neutral Globalization Article 3:“Is Globalization Reducing Poverty and Inequality?”

This scholarly article does a great job of scrutinizing both sides of the globalization argument. It analyzes and makes strong conclusions about data, particularly regarding the supposed rise and fall of world poverty rates. Whether you’re for or against any aspect of globalization, this article can help you examine the data more closely and better understand the margin of error therein.

MLA Citation

Wade, Robert Hunter. “Is Globalization Reducing Poverty and Inequality?” World Development 32.4 (2004): 567–589. ScienceDirect. Web. 28 May 2015.

Neutral-Globalization Article 4:“The Issue of Globalization – An Overview”

In this Congressional Research Service report, Gary J. Wells provides a thorough introduction to globalization that is purely informative but has useful information for either side of the argument. Wells discusses globalization’s accomplishments as well as its failures, providing sound evidence and many footnotes that can be useful for your own research.

MLA Citation

Wells, Gary J. “The Issue of Globalization — An Overview.” Congressional Research Service Reports and Issue Briefs. Cornell U. ILR School, 1 May 2001. Web. 28 May 2015.

Neutral-Globalization Article 5:“Rethinking Global Economic and Social Governance”

Published by the The Journal of Globalization and Development, this article provides interesting insight into globalization that  recognizes it as being necessary but ultimately problematic. Instead of merely taking a “pro-con” approach, the author, Jose Antonio Ocampo, focuses on how improving globalization can provide an effective approach to worldwide governance. He also uses many useful sources that you may want to explore.

MLA Citation

Ocampo, Jose Antonio. “Rethinking Global Economic and Social Governance.” Journal of Globalization and Development 1.1 (2010): 1-29. The Berkeley Electronic Press. Web. 28 May 2015.

5 Anti-Globalization Articles

Anti-Globalization Article 1:“Globalization and Unemployment”

Foreign Affairs contributor, Michael Spence, covers how integrating markets negatively affects U.S. employment rates. While this article is useful for your stance against globalization, it provides a fair assessment of the issue as well. Spence also considers measures that the U.S. could apply to make globalization more sustainable, which is great for compromising with your audience in your argument.

MLA Citation

Spence, Michael. “Globalization and Unemployment.” Foreign Affairs. Council on Foreign Relations, Inc., 02 June 2011. Web. 28 May 2015.

Anti-Globalization Article 2:“The Dark Side of Globalization: Why Seattle’s 1999 Protesters Were Right”

Noah Smith, an assistant professor of finance at Stony Brook University, writes about the problems of the World Trade Organization’s globalization efforts. Smith covers the historical aspect of market globalization from 1999 to the present. The article is thorough and avoids bias by noting that while globalization has improved worldwide equality and poverty issues, the WTO could have implemented the process much more efficiently and ethically.

MLA Citation

Smith, Noah. “The Dark Side of Globalization: Why Seattle’s 1999 Protesters Were Right.” The Atlantic. Atlantic Media Company, 06 Jan. 2014. Web. 28 May 2015.

Anti-Globalization Article 3:“Globalization Is in Retreat? Not So Fast”

In this New York Times article, economic writer Eduardo Porter discusses the problems of globalization and why these may cause a decline in global as opposed to regional business. That said, Porter also maintains a well-balanced argument by offering research that suggests globalization will continue to remain valid as countries have become dependent on this system. He cites important economic research and U.N. data that you may want to use as well.

MLA Citation

Porter, Eduardo. “Globalization Is in Retreat? Not So Fast.” The New York Times. The New York Times Company, 16 Sept. 2014. Web. 28 May 2015.

Anti-Globalization Article 4:“Academic Integrity, Remix Culture, Globalization: A Canadian Case Study of Student and Faculty Perceptions of Plagiarism”

This scholarly article offers a unique approach to globalization because it analyzes the issue from an educational, rather than an economic, perspective. The author, Tyler Evans-Tokaryk, a Writing Specialist and Senior Lecturer at University of Toronto Mississauga, provides a comprehensive study of global plagiarism perspectives and how Western universities must evolve in their approach to the issue. Tokaryk also includes a full bibliography of his sources that could be useful for your own research.

MLA Citation

Evans-Tokaryk, Tyler. “Academic integrity, remix culture, globalization: A Canadian case study of student and faculty perceptions of plagiarism.” Across the Disciplines 11.2 (2014): 24 Nov. 2014. Web. 28 May 2015

Anti-Globalization Article 5:“Behind The Curve: Globalization and International Terrorism”

In this scholarly article, Audrey Kurth Cronin discusses that with increased globalization comes increased global terrorism. While much of this article focuses on the negative aspect of terrorist actions across the world and the ease of access terrorists now possess through media and travel outlets, Cronin effectively structures her argument toward a solution. She recognizes that globalization has its merits, but also notes that major problems in globalization must be solved. Many credible sources appear in the footnotes, so be sure to check those out!

MLA Citation

Cronin, Audrey Kurth. “Behind the Curve: Globalization and International Terrorism.” International Security 27.3 (2003): 30-58. Web. 28 May 2015.

The Breakdown

I’ve given you a head-start with these articles, but there are plenty out there for you to discover! Many of these will be great for your research, but remember to use the CRAAP test if you’re unsure about an article’s quality.

Articles like those above can be found by using Google. But if you’re a university student, you probably have access to tons of great scholarly databases, such as JSTOR or ProjectMuse, through your school. Get your tuition-money’s worth and check these out! If you’re not familiar with online databases, seek help from your friendly university librarian.

Also read 5 Best Resources to Help With Writing a Research Paper.

Once you’ve collected enough articles to support your ideas about the pros and cons of globalization, you’ll be ready to outline and start that first essay draft. Just be sure that you include the following in your paper:

Still wondering what a pros and cons essay looks like? Here are some examples from our sample essay database:

All right, now you’re ready to start writing your paper – go for it! Kibin will be standing by to help you proofread it when you’ve finished.

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