This article is about a former Malaysian politician. For former Burmese politician, see U Razak.
This is a Malay name; the name Hussein is a patronymic, not a family name, and the person should be referred to by the given name, Abdul Razak. The Arabic word "bin" ("b.") or "binti"/"binte" ("bt."/"bte."), if used, means "son of" or "daughter of" respectively.
TunHaji Abdul Razak bin Dato' Haji Hussein (Jawi: عبدال رازک حسین; b. 11 March 1922 – d. 14 January 1976) was the second Prime Minister of Malaysia, ruling from 1970 to 1976.
Tun Razak was the Prime Minister responsible in setting up Barisan Nasional, which is the ruling coalition of political parties that have held power in Malaysia till today, taking over from its predecessor, the Alliance. He is also renowned for launching the Malaysian New Economic Policy (MNEP).
Born in Pekan, Pahang on 11 March 1922, Abdul Razak is the first of two children to Dato' Hussein bin Mohd Taib and Datin Hajah Teh Fatimah bt Daud. Of aristocratic descent, Abdul Razak studied at the Malay College Kuala Kangsar.
After joining the Malay Administrative Service in 1939, he was awarded a scholarship to study at Raffles College in Singapore in 1940. His studies at the college ceased with the onset of the Second World War. During the war he helped organise the Wataniah resistance movement in Pahang.
After World War II, Abdul Razak left for Britain in 1947 to study law. In 1950 he received a law degree and qualified as barrister at Lincoln's Inn in London. During his student days in England, Abdul Razak was a member of the British Labour Party and a prominent student leader of the Malay Association of Great Britain. He also formed the Malayan Forum.
Upon his return from the United Kingdom, in 1950, Tun Razak joined the Malayan Civil Service. Owing to his political calibre, he became the youth chief for United Malays National Organisation (UMNO). Two years later, he worked as the Assistant State Secretary of Pahang and in February 1955, at just 33 years of age, became Pahang's Chief Minister.
Razak stood in and won a seat in Malaysia's first general elections in July 1955 and was appointed as the Education Minister. He was instrumental in the drafting of the Razak Report which formed the basis of the Malayan education system. Tun Razak was also a key member of the February 1956 mission to London to seek the independence of Malaya from the British.
After the general elections in 1959, he became the Minister of Rural Development in addition to holding the portfolios of Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Defence, which he held from 1957. His achievements include formulating the development policy known as the Red Book.
Infusing young blood
At the time of Separation of Singapore from the Federation of Malaysia in 1965, Tun Razak realised that UMNO needed more young leaders in the party. Faced with, amongst other things Lee Kuan Yew's considerable rhetorical skills, Razak wanted young Malay leaders – grounded in their own faith and culture – who would be able to speak and if necessary debate both in the Malay language and English language.
Razak understood that power resided in the Malay community and that for this power to be wielded effectively, the elite among the Malays had to be an elite determined by ability, aptitude and commitment to the nation as a whole. Class, birth and money were secondary in his calculations.
As a consequence of this initiative, the then young leaders of mixed heritage in UMNO, such as Mahathir Mohamad, were drafted into higher echelons of the political establishment.
In 1967 he was awarded the Ramon Magsaysay Award for community leadership.
After the 13 May Incident in 1969, his faction in UMNO overthrewTunku Abdul Rahman Putra and imposed a State of Emergency, ruling by decree as the National Operations Council until 1970. On September 1970, Tunku Abdul Rahman succeeded Tun Abdul Razak as the Prime Minister of Malaysia.
Tun Razak set up the Barisan Nasional or National Front on 1 January 1973 to replace the ruling Alliance Party. He increased the membership of its parties and coalitions in an effort to establish "Ketahanan Nasional" (National Strength) through political stability.
Tun Razak is also renowned for launching the Malaysian New Economic Policy (MNEP) in 1971. He and the "second generation" of Malay politicians saw the need to tackle vigorously the economic and social disparities which fuelled racial antagonism. The MNEP set two basics goals – to reduce and eventually eradicate poverty, and to reduce and eventually eradicate identification of economic function with race.
Due in part to leukaemia, Abdul Razak died in office on 14 January 1976 while seeking medical treatment in London. He was posthumously granted the soubriquet Bapa Pembangunan (Father of Development). He was laid to rest in Heroes Mausoleum near Masjid Negara, Kuala Lumpur.
Awards and recognitions
Places after him
Several places were named after him, including:
- There are several roads and highways in Malaysia and one in Indonesia named after Tun Razak such as Tun Razak Highway (Federal Route connecting Segamat, Johor to Gambang, Pahang), Jalan Tun Razak in Kuala Lumpur (part of Kuala Lumpur Middle Ring Road 1), Jalan Tun Abdul Razak in Johor Bahru (part of Skudai Highway), Jalan Tun Abdul Razak in Ipoh (also known as Maxwell Road), Jalan Tun Abdul Razak in Melaka City (street name for Melaka Bypass), Jalan Tun Razak in Kota Kinabalu, Jalan Tun Abdul Razak in Gowa, Indonesia (known as Jalan Hertasning Baru and Jalan Aroepala) and Jalan Tun Razak in Precinct 2 Putrajaya
- Taman Tun Abdul Razak also known as Taman TAR (Residential Area in Ampang)
- Bandar Tun Razak in Kuala Lumpur and Bandar Tun Abdul Razak, Pahang are the towns named after Tun Razak.
- The most prominent landmark in Georgetown, Penang is the KOMTAR building, the Tun Abdul Razak Complex, housing stores and offices. Another building of the same name was also built in Johor Bahru.
- The SK Tun Abdul Razak primary schools in Kuala Kubu Bharu, Selangor.
- The SMK Tun Abdul Razak secondary schools both in Selekoh, Perak and Kuching, Sarawak.
- The Tun Abdul Razak Research Centre in Brickendonbury, England, is named in his.
- KD Tun Abdul Razak, a Scorpene class submarine of the Royal Malaysian Navy
- Tun Abdul Razak Chancellor Hall (DECTAR) at the National University of Malaysia (UKM) in Bangi, Selangor
- Tun Abdul Razak Library (PTAR) at MARA University of Technology (UiTM), Shah Alam, Selangor
- MRSM Tun Abdul Razak, MARA Junior Science College in Pekan, Pahang.
- Sekolah Berasrama Penuh Integrasi Tun Abdul Razak (SBPITAR), integrated boarding school in Pekan, Pahang
- Sekolah Dato' Abdul Razak (SDAR), all-boys boarding school in Seremban, Negeri Sembilan.
- Universiti Tun Abdul Razak (UNITAR), private university in Kuala Lumpur.
- Tun Abdul Razak Residential College, one of residential college in Universiti Malaysia Perlis
- Tun Razak Hockey Stadium, located in the Jalan Duta National Sports Complex, Kuala Lumpur.
- Dewan Tun Abdul Razak is another gallery of Sarawak Museum.
- Institut Teknologi Tun Abdul Razak, private institution in Petaling Jaya, Selangor
- Tun Abdul Razak Hockey Cup
- Tun Abdul Razak Heritage Park, public recreational park in Kuala Lumpur
- Tun Abdul Razak Memorial
- Piala Tun Hj. Abdul Razak bin Hussein, trophy that is awarded to the winner of Pertandingan Bahas Piala Perdana Menteri in Hari Anugerah Kecemerlangan Sekolah Berasrama Penuh
- Bandar Tun Abdul Razak Jengka, Pahang
Tun Abdul Razak Bin Hussein was the only child of Dato’ Hussein Bin Mohd Taid and Hajah The Fatimah Binti Daud. He was descended from a long line of Pahang chieftains and was born in Pulau Keladi, Pahang, on 11 March 1922. Abdul Razak’s eldest son, Najib Tun Razak, became the Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia under Abdullah Badawi in 2004. He has four other sons, Datuk Ahmad Johari
Razak, Mohamed Nizam, Mohamed Nazim and Mohamed Nazir. Abdul Razak studied at the Malay College Kuala Kangsar. After joining the Malay Administrative Service in 1939, he was awarded a scholarship to study at Raffles College in Singapore in 1940. His studies at the college ceased with the onset of the Second World War. During the war he helped organize the Wataniah resistance movement in Pahang. After World War II, Tun Abdul Razak managed to get a scholarship to study law in Britain in the year of 1947 and received a Degree of an Utter Barrister from Lincoln’s Inn.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">He returned back to Malaysia to pursue his ambition of being a lawyer, but he ventured out into politics joined the Malayan Civil Service. In 1950 he was the Youth Chief for United Malays National Organisation (UMNO). He then worked as the Assistant State Secretary of Pahang. At the age of 33, he became the Pahang’s Chief Minister. He won the first election in July 1955 and was appointed as the Education Minister. He was also the Minister of Rural Development, the Deputy Prime Minister and the Minister of Defense in 1959. His achievements include formulating the development policy known as the Red Book. He was later appointed as the Second Prime Minter of Malaysia in September 1970, overthrowing Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra after the May 13th incident in 1969 by his faction in UMNO and imposed a State of Emergency, ruling by decree until 1970.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">On the 1st of January 1973, Tunku Abdul Razak made a National Front (Barisan National) to replace the Alliance Party. The number of membership of the party increased, establishing the National Strength through political stability. Tunku Abdul Razak and the “second generation” of politicians realized that they should improved rapidly on their economic and social disparities which caused the racial antagonism. He then launched the Malaysian New Economic Policy (MNEP) in 1971. The two main goals was to reduce and eventually eradicate poverty and to reduce and eventually eradicate identification of the economic function with race.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">At the time of Seperation of Singapore from the Federation of Malaysia in 1965, Tunku Abdul Razak realized that UMNO needed more young leaders in the party, who is grounded in their own faith and culture and be able to speak in both English and Malay language for debate. He also wanted young men and women of different races to mix with one another with peace because what’s important to him was the question whether or not the younger generation could do the job because they would have to be subject to scrutiny and be accountable to the voters. He also understood that power was sided in the Malay community and for this power to be wielded effectively, the elite among the Malays had to be an elite determined by ability, aptitude and commitment to the nation as a whole.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Class, birth and money were secondary in his calculations. He died of leukemia in January 1976. His death was a great loss to the nation. Tun Abdul Razak was remembered as a leader who was known as the Father of Development who had brought further development and progress to Malaysia. There are now several roads and highways in Malaysia named after Tun Razak as an award such as Tun Razak Highway (Federal Route JKR|12 connecting Segamat, Johor to Gambang, Pahang), Jalan Tun Razak in Kuala Lumpur (part of Kuala Lumpur Middle Ring Road 1), Jalan Tun Abdul Razak in Johor Bahru (part of Skudai Highway) and Jalan Tun Abdul Razak in Melaka City (street name for Melaka Bypass). Bandar Tun Razak in Kuala Lumpur and Bandar Tun Abdul Razak, Pahang are the towns named after Tun Razak.</p>