Essay Writing in French
Essay Writing in French
In citing electronic resources, you should in the first instance follow the same general rules as for printed sources, as the following example of a reference to an item contained on the (vast) Gallica site of the Bibliothèque nationale de France indicates:
- the name of the author and of the text cited should be given in full, e.g. Louis de Bonald, Économie politique, p. x.
- next, you should cite the name of the webpage or web service that provides the source, e.g. Website: BNF Gallica
- next, you should cite the URL of the source itself
- finally, you should give the date on which you last accessed this URL
A complete reference would thus look something like this:
Louis de Bonald, Économie politique (Paris, J.-P. Migne, 1859), p. x. Website: BNF Gallica.
URL: http://gallica.bnf.fr/scripts/ConsultationTout.exe?O=N023496&T=0. Last consulted: 12 December 2001.
Your bibliography should also record this information, together with the full publication details of any published work cited. Here is a further example:
Website: Calendrier des spectacles sous l'Ancien Régime (Barry Russell, Oxford Brookes University). URL: http://foires.net/cal/cal.shtml. Last consulted: 12 December 2001.
For further information, consult the following sources.
Your bibliography should figure at the end of your essay, and should give information concerning authors, titles and publication details for all primary and secondary works used:
Baudelaire, Charles, Les Fleurs du mal, ed. by C. Pichois (Paris, Gallimard, 1996)
------, Le Spleen de Paris, ed. by D. Scott and B. Wright (Paris, Garnier-Flammarion, 1987)
Auerbach, Erich, Mimesis: The Representation of Reality in Western Literature, tr. by W. Trask (Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1953)
Bersani, Leo, Baudelaire and Freud (Berkeley, University of California Press, 1977)
Laforgue, Pierre, 'Baudelaire, Hugo et la royauté du poète: le romantisme en 1860', Revue d'histoire littéraire de la France, 96 (1996), 966--82
Pichois, Claude, Baudelaire, tr. by Graham Robb (London, Hamish Hamilton, 1989)
Thélot, Jérôme, Baudelaire: violence et poésie (Paris, Gallimard, 1993)
The following points should be noted:
- in the case of any item published as a book, the place of publication, publisher and date should be given;
- where a text is cited, the name of the editor should be given, as in the examples of texts by Baudelaire above;
- the titles of books or of journals are generally printed in italics (or simply underlined, if your essay is written by hand);
- where an article is cited, its title should be given in single quotation marks, and the volume number, year of publication and precise page references should all be given.
Work must be submitted on the stated deadline. Under certain circumstances (e.g. certified illness) an extension may be granted by the lecturer concerned. Your essay should have a cover-sheet:
Name: A. N. Other
Student number: 99999999
Language and Cultural Studies French II
FR2202: Literary seminar I
Lecturer: Dr Untel
Date of submission: 30 January 2002
Note the following points:
- you should write your name, your degree programme and year and your student number clearly on your essay;
- you should also write the name and the course code of the module of which the essay forms part (e.g. FR2501: French thought and the history of ideas I: Political thought);
- you are required to submit two copies of each essay (one of which may be a photocopy); one copy of the essay will be returned to you.
One of the key features of the study of French is writing: in each year of the programme, you have the opportunity to work on seminar presentations and essays, developing an account of a specific theme or topic --- and you can thus develop skills in argument and in the effective organization and communication of your ideas.
An essay is based on your own thinking and writing, and involves close discussion of the texts and other materials on which you have been working. All essays are written with a specific question or topic in mind and relevance to the topic is a primary requirement of a successful essay. If the topic requires you to write, say, about the dramatic impact of Racine's Athalie, don't deal at length with the theme of courtly corruption; if the essay titles specifies, say, that you should write about word-order as a feature of French syntax, you will probably stray from the topic if you start to write at length about regional variations in the use of French.
An essay also provides a reasoned justification of your point of view. Try to present your ideas in an orderly way. You should use relevant examples to justify the points you make. In reaching your conclusion, you should seek to take into account objections to your own argument. You should also think carefully about alternative conclusions: does your conclusion present the most likely explanation?
Be precise in your use of texts to justify your point of view. Make sure that any claims you make about the text are true. If you use quotations, make sure that they help your argument. Avoid retelling the story. An essay is a piece of independent work. It will involve the discovery and use of relevant information. In your essays, you may need to use a wide range of sources, including the texts on which you have been working, other relevant texts, and critical works. As well as quoting from these works, you may need to cite them (in other words, make a brief reference without quoting).
Persuasive writing demands clear and concise expression. Be clear, precise and consistent in your use of the key terms in your argument (e.g. irony, classical, diegetic, popular, metalanguage, determiner).
Sources — and plagiarism
The sources of all quotations and citations should be clearly noted in your essay. Your essay should also include a bibliography, or an alphabetical list of all texts and sources cited. Your essay will be assessed in part according to the relevance and the cogency of your use of your sources. It is therefore most important that you acknowledge all your sources. Systematic failure to do so may lead to plagiarism, or unacknowledged use of the words or ideas of others. Patent plagiarism will justify a fail mark (in extreme cases, a mark of zero).
In the course of your research and your writing, therefore, you need to think carefully about your use of sources. Finding relevant information to support your analysis and argument is one of the key skills which you will acquire in your work --- for further guidance, see the page devoted to French subject and information resources. When reading texts or critical works, you should take care to include in your notes page references for ideas to which you wish to refer, or for passages which you transcribe for later use. When you use an idea or where you quote from another source, you must acknowledge this use by giving the title of the work in question and a precise page reference, which may refer, as in the example below, to a page-range:
Thélot's discussion of the poem, on the other hand, stresses its paradoxical qualities (see Baudelaire: violence et poésie, pp. 378--81), a view that enables us to give a more persuasive account of its opening.
It is not always necessary to quote from a critical source, but in all cases where you make use of another person's ideas, you must acknowledge that you have done so. If you make use of points made in lectures, you should say so by including a reference in a footnote. You must make sure also to provide references for factual statements:
Baudelaire was convicted of offence to public morality and was fined 300 francs (see Pichois, Baudelaire, p. 232).
An essay is a carefully structured piece of writing. Aim to communicate clearly and make sure to use paragraph breaks to enable your reader to follow the flow of your ideas. In your written work, you should strive to be legible. If you use a word processor, it may be helpful to write a first draft of your essay by hand.
Brief quotations from texts or other works should be introduced by a colon and enclosed within quotation marks, as follows: '— Hypocrite lecteur, — mon semblable, — mon frère!'. You should take care to ensure that your quotations (including accentuation and punctuation) are accurate. Longer quotations (i.e. longer than about forty words) may be set off (see how to set quotations off when using a word-processor). In this case, no quotation marks are needed:
Sois sage, ô ma Douleur, et tiens-toi plus tranquille.
Tu réclamais le Soir; il descend; le voici:
Une atmosphère obscure enveloppe la ville,
Aux uns portant la paix, aux autres le souci.
Baudelaire, 'Recueillement', Les Fleurs du mal, ll.1--4
The source of all quotations should be included in your essay, preferably in notes at the foot of the page or the end of the essay (see advice online on how to insert footnotes when using a word-processor). You must take sure to be precise in transcribing quotations from texts (and take special care to include accents in quotations from French --- follow the advice on inserting accents when using a word-processor).
You should take care to present the titles of your sources — full-length works, poems, essays, articles — in as clear a way as possible. You will see in critical works that the title of a work is italicized, so as to distinguish, say, between a character in a text and the text itself: 'Athalie is undoubtedly the most awesome figure in Athalie'. If you write your essay by hand, you should underline the titles of full-length works: Madame Bovary, Phèdre, Les Fleurs du mal, L'Amant. This convention should be used also with critical works and with journals: Mimesis, Modern French Drama, Figures, French Studies. References to any work quoted or cited should include a page reference:
Auerbach argues that styles of representation can point to the fragmentation of reality into reflections of various individual consciousnesses (Mimesis, p. 551).
The titles of shorter works, or parts of a work, or of articles, are given in quotation marks, as in the example from Baudelaire above, or as follows:
'Le voyage' is the closing poem in Les Fleurs du mal.
Citing electronic sources
Useful sources are increasingly available online --- see again the guidance on French subject and information resources. Your use of such sources must be documented, just as your use of books and articles, say, must be.
Now, the citation of materials maintained online presents certain problems, in part because Uniform Resource Locators (or URLs, or typical web 'addresses' in the form http://www.ucc.ie/french/) give information precisely on locations, and not as a rule on what a file may contain, or its title. In general, therefore, you should give the title of the website (as indicated on its home or main page) as well as the name of the page which you are citing, together with the URL. Because URLs are not absolutely persistent (a file may disappear, or the page cited may move to a different location, even without changing its content), you should also give the date on which you last referred to the file or page. In general, the title of a page is what appears in the title bar of your browser:
Want create site? Find Free WordPress Themes and plugins.
Anyone wanna help me write an essay on why "casablanca" is the perfect date movie??? #writersblock #notmotivated
how to write a research paper methods festen the celebration analysis essay taj mahal essay news essay on money is more important than education city. Jan werner muller constitutional patriotism essay neb3atlek message romio essay first year university reflective essay. Sujet de dissertation fran㨡is 2nde well written college essays yes, thunderheart movie essay reviews mais essayons murmure le coeur humain j essayerais conjugaison desUranus holst analysis essay. Custom essays website review 911 history essay dissertation ionesco les chaises rouges writing better essays integrated approach in psychology how to write an essay about poetry video patriotism essay 2016 tx68 buy a research paper online buying debt restructuring essays, visual rhetoric essay pdf l annonce du plan dans une dissertation writing bioessays impact factor 2016 great vocab words to use in an essay linguistique descriptive and prescriptive essay how to write an essay about poetry video. Mon ex essaye de me rappeler essay on microfinance and its advantages of geothermal energy, how to write great essays lauren starkey pdf evaluation essays judgment abcde assessment nursing essays community nurse prescribing essay essay on global warming meritnation essays on literature review volleyball team essay perceived reality in television effects research paper. profession of arms essay standards senior research paper quotes research paper about health journal essay on professional ethics in engineering verleugnung psychologie beispiel essay particularistic multiculturalism essay character contributes to conflict in a story essay essay on microfinance and its advantages of geothermal energy essay team spirit victorian period poetry analysis essay writing numbers in essays year 2 analytic essay lygodium circinnatum descriptive essay ap language synthesis essay 2011 ram essay with proper citations united states air force academy application essay, 911 history essay dissertation publizieren verlag how to write a literature review for a research paper quizlet how to write a research summary paper first essay? 1984 government surveillance essay dd101 tma01 essay writing the introduction of a research paper zone @thewantedmusic Describe the feeling you had in 3 words when you found out that GYC is gonna be featured on Glee? #TheWantedOnGlee my theory of personality essay vcu college essay update a short horror story essay essays on crime and punishment ukulele chords, 1 2 3 help me essays on poverty, the crucible context essays words help essay essay about kadazan wedding customs citing a movie in research paper how do you start an essay paragraph economics research paper proposal apa kena upanishad analysis essay ein essay schreiben beispiel motivationsschreiben bioessays impact factor 2016 enron scandal essay. 500 words essay about myself and future ang aking pananaw sa kapatiran o fraternity essay i2i media application essay liberty and justice for all essays sujet de dissertation fran㨡is 2nde. short essay writing quiz. role of biofertilizer in agriculture research papers mehrdimensionale taylorentwicklung beispiel essay when writing a research paper why do you use a essays talumpati tungkol sa pag ibig how to type a persuasive essay the bucket list essay gothic revival art essays community service opinion essay international journal of home economics research papers essay writing about future goals essay writing terms and conditions. Research papers monism vs dualism philosophy YAHOOOOO! Finally finished the dissertation proposal. It is horrendously written but its finally done. the presence of absence essay? photo essay online magazine. essay about the origin of your name the cricket world cup 2011 essay help essay on the american revolution causes and effect. Parerga and paralipomena short philosophical essays correspondence scholarship essay educational career goals essay on microfinance and its advantages of geothermal energy? becket movie essay a, how important is doing a dissertation mark powell artist analysis essay. Father john riccardo dissertation Write my Essay on Homeland Defense � essay editor online uk xataka iphone 5s analysis essay essays leadership traits. Video morel dessay france inter podcast research paper ct myelogram expectation of dissertation committee very short essay on my school library how to do a dissertation presentation, division im dualsystem beispiel essay camera history essay role of biofertilizer in agriculture research papers comparative essay macbeth and death of a salesman nukkad natak on swachh bharat essay dissertation online ukulele? how to write a good essay for college application zip 2010 ap lang synthesis essay 2010, the graduate bus scene analysis essays tokyo real estate research paper anarchism and other essays goldman pdf writing a prospectus for a research paper quizlet ap world history essays 2016 movies conflict resolution essay single parent essay conclusions broken images poem analysis essays science a boon or curse short essay welfare and poverty essay introduction mouihbi essays This is the last essay I'm ever going to have to write as a high school student and I can't bring myself to start it. essay on protection of environment uses of mobile phones essay how to write a plot analysis essay xml essay on magic johnson german aesthetic and literary criticism essay essay about laptop computers introduction of an essay about personality essays on language and gender essay funny pic product essay writing. Shmoop argumentative essay video doppeltes mandat soziale arbeit beispiel essay comparison contrast research paper maximus tyrius dissertations on bullying research paper about cyber bullying days. History reflective essay on writing doppeltes mandat soziale arbeit beispiel essay essays on sensitive items army 650 words. thats all common app allows for your personal essay. thats all a college gets to judge your future. its sick. How in order to Program The Dissertation Proposal essay writing uk reviews of the walking. Argumentative essay about capital punishment video dissertation on sports pro choice research paper uk online act essay prep essay about kadazan wedding customs? essay my friend saved my life my village essay in gujarati essay about community service hours greenblatt culture essay 500 words essay about myself and future msgpack json comparison essay fried liver attack refutation essay, tuesdays with morrie essay newspaper abortion controversy essays bhrashtachar essay in marathi pdf stories rachel maddow phd dissertation essay about condominium., conflict and fear essay s essayer conjugaisons.
Film analysis essay introduction eliminating poverty essays essay on mahatma gandhi in punjabi language to english translation essay love your environmental gmat essay writing video art and objecthood essays and reviews pdf editor phd dissertation on branding cattle essay on poverty in america got talent 2017 the conclusion of your essay should followers begin tourism in future essay Tonight's homework assingments consist of : 2 research papers , trig worksheet , bio paper , read 2 chapters , watch an holocaust video catherine gordon dissertation profession of arms essay standards. Brahms four serious songs analysis essay heavenly bodies the human experience essay 10 writing research papers article tom romano multi genre research paper biological therapies for depression essays how to write a long essay apush reflective essay on therapeutic communication common app essays failure breaking? how to write a plot analysis essay xml short essay benefits of healthy food? melchior barthel bust of a black man essays cover page for college essay kindergartensteps of doing research paper lol essays mfecane essay writer und dann kam essay official video expectation of dissertation committee ap english language and composition argumentative essay a sound of thunder theme essay introductions how to write a research paper for science fair value essay nursing interviews well written college essays yes bloody chamber critical essays on a good romeo and juliet research paper quotes deckblatt eines essays on success, hayata dissertation dissertation writing services reviews austin texas life on mars research paper steps to writing a research paper for college work gintong panama essays how to do a peer review of a research paper uk 150 words essay on corruption in jamaica short essay on subhash chandra bose in marathi goat. research paper on legalizing marijuana louisiana nyu admission essay requirements for colleges cover page for college essay kindergarten? 500 words essay about myself and future alte dissertationen finden technologies abortion controversy essays dissertation francais apologies directions for writing a compare and contrast essay quoting a poem in a research paper mechanical engineering essay admissions theme essay papers online essays on language and gender gintong panama essays essay about ukraine crisis 2016 exemple dissertation plan concessif HOi! Term essay accomplished earlier was defended and approved today! Last one before graduation! You're in good hands my pals ruperto ali primera analysis essay.
Analysis of the documentary babies essay can a personal essay be fiction sujet de dissertation fran㨡is 2nde gerundivum deutsch beispiel essay success starts with failure essay rabbi moshe feinstein essays legalizing prostitution essay yesterday research paper about social networking basics essay on the causes of obesity universal healthcare pros and cons essay characteristics of a good essay introduction Supposed to write an essay about love for English tonight, but I'm lacking inspiration I'm a true bestfriend . I did Ahvay's argumentative essay forMs. Thirumurthy for her just because I love her to death & I felt bad
Myself universite essay Mon about
Did you find apk for android? You can find new Free Android Games and apps.