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Marketing Management, Millenium Edition Philip Kotler

Custom Edition for University of Phoenix

Excerpts taken from: A Framework for Marketing Management, by Philip Kotler Copyright © 2001by Prentice-Hall, Inc. A Pearson Education Company Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Marketing Management Millenium Edition, Tenth Edition, by Philip Kotler Copyright © 2000 by Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. Compilation Copyright © 2002 by Pearson Custom Publishing. This copyright covers material written expressly for this volume by the editor/s as well as the compilation itself. It does not cover the individual selections herein that first appeared elsewhere. Permission to reprint these has been obtained by Pearson Custom Publishing for this edition only. Further reproduction by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, must be arranged with the individual copyright holders noted. This special edition published in cooperation with Pearson Custom Publishing

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SECTION ONE

Understanding Marketing Management

Marketing in the Twenty-First Century We will address the following questions: ■ What are the tasks of marketing? ■ What are the major concepts and tools of marketing? ■ What orientations do companies exhibit in the marketplace? ■ How are companies and marketers responding to the new challenges?

C

hange is occurring at an accelerating rate; today is not like yesterday, and tomorrow will be different from today. Continuing today’s strategy is risky; so is turning to a new strategy. Therefore, tomorrow’s successful companies will have to heed three certainties: ➤

Global forces will continue to affect everyone’s business and personal life.



Technology will continue to advance and amaze us.



There will be a continuing push toward deregulation of the economic sector.

These three developments—globalization, technological advances, and deregulation—spell endless opportunities. But what is marketing and what does it have to do with these issues? Marketing deals with identifying and meeting human and social needs. One of the shortest definitions of marketing is “meeting needs profitably.” Whether the marketer is Procter & Gamble, which notices that people feel overweight and want tasty but less fatty food and invents Olestra; or CarMax, which notes that people want more certainty when they buy a used automobile and invents a new system for selling used cars; or IKEA, which notices that people want good furniture at a substantially lower price and creates knock-down furniture—all illustrate a drive to turn a private or social need into a profitable business opportunity through marketing.

MARKETING TASKS A recent book, Radical Marketing, praises companies such as Harley-Davidson for succeeding by breaking all of the rules of marketing.1 Instead of commissioning expensive marketing research, spending huge sums on advertising, and operating large market-

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ing departments, these companies stretch their limited resources, live close to their customers, and create more satisfying solutions to customers’ needs. They form buyers clubs, use creative public relations, and focus on delivering quality products to win long-term customer loyalty. It seems that not all marketing must follow the P&G model. In fact, we can distinguish three stages through which marketing practice might pass: 1.

Entrepreneurial marketing: Most companies are started by individuals who visualize an opportunity and knock on every door to gain attention. Jim Koch, founder of Boston Beer Company, whose Samuel Adams beer has become a top-selling “craft” beer, started out in 1984 carrying bottles of Samuel Adams from bar to bar to persuade bartenders to carry it. For 10 years, he sold his beer through direct selling and grassroots public relations. Today his business pulls in nearly $200 million, making it the leader in the U.S. craft beer market.2

2.

Formulated marketing: As small companies achieve success, they inevitably move toward more formulated marketing. Boston Beer recently began a $15 million television advertising campaign. The company now employs more that 175 salespeople and has a marketing department that carries on market research, adopting some of the tools used in professionally run marketing companies.

3.

Intrepreneurial marketing: Many large companies get stuck in formulated marketing, poring over the latest ratings, scanning research reports, trying to fine-tune dealer relations and advertising messages. These companies lack the creativity and passion of the guerrilla marketers in the entrepreneurial stage.3 Their brand and product managers need to start living with their customers and visualizing new ways to add value to their customers’ lives.

The bottom line is that effective marketing can take many forms. Although it is easier to learn the formulated side (which will occupy most of our attention in this book), we will also see how creativity and passion can be used by today’s and tomorrow’s marketing managers.

The Scope of Marketing Marketing people are involved in marketing 10 types of entities: goods, services, experiences, events, persons, places, properties, organizations, information, and ideas. Goods. Physical goods constitute the bulk of most countries’ production and marketing effort. The United States produces and markets billions of physical goods, from eggs to steel to hair dryers. In developing nations, goods— particularly food, commodities, clothing, and housing—are the mainstay of the economy. Services. As economies advance, a growing proportion of their activities are focused on the production of services. The U.S. economy today consists of a 70–30 services-to-goods mix. Services include airlines, hotels, and maintenance and repair people, as well as professionals such as accountants, lawyers, engineers, and doctors. Many market offerings consist of a variable mix of goods and services. Experiences. By orchestrating several services and goods, one can create, stage, and market experiences. Walt Disney World’s Magic Kingdom is an experience; so is the Hard Rock Cafe. Events. Marketers promote time-based events, such as the Olympics, trade shows, sports events, and artistic performances.

Marketing Tasks

Persons. Celebrity marketing has become a major business. Artists, musicians, CEOs, physicians, high-profile lawyers and financiers, and other professionals draw help from celebrity marketers.4 Places. Cities, states, regions, and nations compete to attract tourists, factories, company headquarters, and new residents.5 Place marketers include economic development specialists, real estate agents, commercial banks, local business associations, and advertising and public relations agencies. Properties. Properties are intangible rights of ownership of either real property (real estate) or financial property (stocks and bonds). Properties are bought and sold, and this occasions a marketing effort by real estate agents (for real estate) and investment companies and banks (for securities). Organizations. Organizations actively work to build a strong, favorable image in the mind of their publics. Philips, the Dutch electronics company, advertises with the tag line, “Let’s Make Things Better.” The Body Shop and Ben & Jerry’s also gain attention by promoting social causes. Universities, museums, and performing arts organizations boost their public images to compete more successfully for audiences and funds. Information. The production, packaging, and distribution of information is one of society’s major industries.6 Among the marketers of information are schools and universities; publishers of encyclopedias, nonfiction books, and specialized magazines; makers of CDs; and Internet Web sites. Ideas. Every market offering has a basic idea at its core. In essence, products and services are platforms for delivering some idea or benefit to satisfy a core need.

A Broadened View of Marketing Tasks Marketers are skilled in stimulating demand for their products. However, this is too limited a view of the tasks that marketers perform. Just as production and logistics professionals are responsible for supply management, marketers are responsible for demand management. They may have to manage negative demand (avoidance of a product), no demand (lack of awareness or interest in a product), latent demand (a strong need that cannot be satisfied by existing products), declining demand (lower demand), irregular demand (demand varying by season, day, or hour), full demand (a satisfying level of demand), overfull demand (more demand than can be handled), or unwholesome demand (demand for unhealthy or dangerous products). To meet the organization’s objectives, marketing managers seek to influence the level, timing, and composition of these various demand states.

The Decisions That Marketers Make Marketing managers face a host of decisions in handling marketing tasks. These range from major decisions such as what product features to design into a new product, how many salespeople to hire, or how much to spend on advertising, to minor decisions such as the wording or color for new packaging. Among the questions that marketers ask (and will be addressed in this text) are: How can we spot and choose the right market segment(s)? How can we differentiate our offering? How should we respond to customers who press for a lower price? How can we compete against lower-cost, lower-price rivals? How far can we go in customizing our offering for each customer? How can we grow our business? How can we build stronger brands? How can we reduce the cost of customer acquisition and keep customers loyal? How can we tell which customers are more important? How can we measure the payback

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from marketing communications? How can we improve sales-force productivity? How can we manage channel conflict? How can we get other departments to be more customer-oriented?

Marketing Concepts and Tools Marketing boasts a rich array of concepts and tools to help marketers address the decisions they must make. We will start by defining marketing and then describing its major concepts and tools.

Defining Marketing We can distinguish between a social and a managerial definition for marketing. According to a social definition, marketing is a societal process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating, offering, and exchanging products and services of value freely with others. As a managerial definition, marketing has often been described as “the art of selling products.” But Peter Drucker, a leading management theorist, says that “the aim of marketing is to make selling superfluous. The aim of marketing is to know and understand the customer so well that the product or service fits him and sells itself. Ideally, marketing should result in a customer who is ready to buy.”7 The American Marketing Association offers this managerial definition: Marketing (management) is the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of ideas, goods, and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational goals.8 Coping with exchange processes—part of this definition—calls for a considerable amount of work and skill. We see marketing management as the art and science of applying core marketing concepts to choose target markets and get, keep, and grow customers through creating, delivering, and communicating superior customer value.

Core Marketing Concepts Marketing can be further understood by defining the core concepts applied by marketing managers. Target Markets and Segmentation A marketer can rarely satisfy everyone in a market. Not everyone likes the same soft drink, automobile, college, and movie. Therefore, marketers start with market segmentation. They identify and profile distinct groups of buyers who might prefer or require varying products and marketing mixes. Market segments can be identified by examining demographic, psychographic, and behavioral differences among buyers. The firm then decides which segments present the greatest opportunity—those whose needs the firm can meet in a superior fashion. For each chosen target market, the firm develops a market offering. The offering is positioned in the minds of the target buyers as delivering some central benefit(s). For example, Volvo develops its cars for the target market of buyers for whom automobile safety is a major concern. Volvo, therefore, positions its car as the safest a customer can buy. Traditionally, a “market” was a physical place where buyers and sellers gathered to exchange goods. Now marketers view the sellers as the industry and the buyers as the market (see Figure 1-1). The sellers send goods and services and communications (ads, direct mail, e-mail messages) to the market; in return they receive money and information (attitudes, sales data). The inner loop in the diagram in Figure 1-1 shows

Marketing Tasks

Communication Industry (a collection of sellers)

Goods/services Money

Market (a collection of buyers)

Information

Figure 1-1 A Simple Marketing System an exchange of money for goods and services; the outer loop shows an exchange of information. A global industry is one in which the strategic positions of competitors in major geographic or national markets are fundamentally affected by their overall global positions. Global firms—both large and small—plan, operate, and coordinate their activities and exchanges on a worldwide basis. Today we can distinguish between a marketplace and a marketspace. The marketplace is physical, as when one goes shopping in a store; marketspace is digital, as when one goes shopping on the Internet. E-commerce—business transactions conducted on-line—has many advantages for both consumers and businesses, including convenience, savings, selection, personalization, and information. For example, on-line shopping is so convenient that 30 percent of the orders generated by the Web site of REI, a recreational equipment retailer, is logged from 10 P.M. to 7 A.M., sparing REI the expense of keeping its stores open late or hiring customer service representatives. However, the e-commerce marketspace is also bringing pressure from consumers for lower prices and is threatening intermediaries such as travel agents, stockbrokers, insurance agents, and traditional retailers. To succeed in the on-line marketspace, marketers will need to reorganize and redefine themselves. The metamarket, a concept proposed by Mohan Sawhney, describes a cluster of complementary products and services that are closely related in the minds of consumers but are spread across a diverse set of industries. The automobile metamarket consists of automobile manufacturers, new and used car dealers, financing companies, insurance companies, mechanics, spare parts dealers, service shops, auto magazines, classified auto ads in newspapers, and auto sites on the Internet. Car buyers can get involved in many parts of this metamarket. This has created an opportunity for metamediaries to assist buyers to move seamlessly through these groups. One example is Edmund’s (www.edmunds.com), a Web site where buyers can find prices for different cars and click to other sites to search for dealers, financing, and accessories. Metamediaries can serve various metamarkets, such as the home ownership market, the parenting and baby care market, and the wedding market.9 Marketers and Prospects Another core concept is the distinction between marketers and prospects. A marketer is someone who is seeking a response (attention, a purchase, a vote, a donation) from another party, called the prospect. If two parties are seeking to sell something to each other, both are marketers.

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Needs, Wants, and Demands The successful marketer will try to understand the target market’s needs, wants, and demands. Needs describe basic human requirements such as food, air, water, clothing, and shelter. People also have strong needs for recreation, education, and entertainment. These needs become wants when they are directed to specific objects that might satisfy the need. An American needs food but wants a hamburger, French fries, and a soft drink. A person in Mauritius needs food but wants a mango, rice, lentils, and beans. Clearly, wants are shaped by one’s society. Demands are wants for specific products backed by an ability to pay. Many people want a Mercedes; only a few are able and willing to buy one. Companies must measure not only how many people want their product, but also how many would actually be willing and able to buy it. However, marketers do not create needs: Needs preexist marketers. Marketers, along with other societal influences, influence wants. Marketers might promote the idea that a Mercedes would satisfy a person’s need for social status. They do not, however, create the need for social status. Product or Offering People satisfy their needs and wants with products. A product is any offering that can satisfy a need or want, such as one of the 10 basic offerings of goods, services, experiences, events, persons, places, properties, organizations, information, and ideas. A brand is an offering from a known source. A brand name such as McDonald’s carries many associations in the minds of people: hamburgers, fun, children, fast food, golden arches. These associations make up the brand image. All companies strive to build a strong, favorable brand image. Value and Satisfaction In terms of marketing, the product or offering will be successful if it delivers value and satisfaction to the target buyer. The buyer chooses between different offerings on the basis of which is perceived to deliver the most value. We define value as a ratio between what the customer gets and what he gives. The customer gets benefits and assumes costs, as shown in this equation: Functional benefits ⫹ emotional benefits Value ⫽ Benefits ⫽ Costs Monetary costs ⫹ time costs ⫹ energy costs ⫹ psychic costs Based on this equation, the marketer can increase the value of the customer offering by (1) raising benefits, (2) reducing costs, (3) raising benefits and reducing costs, (4) raising benefits by more than the raise in costs, or (5) lowering benefits by less than the reduction in costs. A customer choosing between two value offerings, V1 and V2, will examine the ratio V1/V2. She will favor V1 if the ratio is larger than one; she will favor V2 if the ratio is smaller than one; and she will be indifferent if the ratio equals one. Exchange and Transactions Exchange, the core of marketing, involves obtaining a desired product from someone by offering something in return. For exchange potential to exist, five conditions must be satisfied: 1.

There are at least two parties.

2.

Each party has something that might be of value to the other party.

3.

Each party is capable of communication and delivery.

Marketing Tasks 4.

Each party is free to accept or reject the exchange offer.

5.

Each party believes it is appropriate or desirable to deal with the other party.

Whether exchange actually takes place depends upon whether the two parties can agree on terms that will leave them both better off (or at least not worse off) than before. Exchange is a value-creating process because it normally leaves both parties better off. Note that exchange is a process rather than an event. Two parties are engaged in exchange if they are negotiating—trying to arrive at mutually agreeable terms. When an agreement is reached, we say that a transaction takes place. A transaction involves at least two things of value, agreed-upon conditions, a time of agreement, and a place of agreement. Usually a legal system exists to support and enforce compliance among transactors. However, transactions do not require money as one of the traded values. A barter transaction, for example, involves trading goods or services for other goods or services. Note also that a transaction differs from a transfer. In a transfer, A gives a gift, a subsidy, or a charitable contribution to B but receives nothing tangible in return. Transfer behavior can also be understood through the concept of exchange. Typically, the transferer expects something in exchange for his or her gift—for example, gratitude or seeing changed behavior in the recipient. Professional fund-raisers provide benefits to donors, such as thank-you notes. Contemporary marketers have broadened the concept of marketing to include the study of transfer behavior as well as transaction behavior. Marketing consists of actions undertaken to elicit desired responses from a target audience. To effect successful exchanges, marketers analyze what each party expects from the transaction. Suppose Caterpillar, the world’s largest manufacturer of earth-moving equipment, researches the benefits that a typical construction company wants when it buys such equipment. The items shown on the prospect’s want list in Figure 1-2 are not equally important and may vary from buyer to buyer. One of Caterpillar’s marketing tasks is to discover the relative importance of these different wants to the buyer. As the marketer, Caterpillar also has a want list. If there is a sufficient match or overlap in the want lists, a basis for a transaction exists. Caterpillar’s task is to formulate an offer that motivates the construction company to buy Caterpillar equipment. The construction company might, in turn, make a counteroffer. This process of negotiation leads to mutually acceptable terms or a decision not to transact. Relationships and Networks Transaction marketing is part of a larger idea called relationship marketing. Relationship marketing aims to build long-term mutually satisfying relations with key parties—customers, suppliers, distributors—in order to earn and retain their long-term preference and business.10 Effective marketers accomplish this by promising and delivering high-quality products and services at fair prices to the other parties over time. Relationship marketing builds strong economic, technical, and social ties among the parties. It cuts down on transaction costs and time. In the most successful cases, transactions move from being negotiated each time to being a matter of routine. The ultimate outcome of relationship marketing is the building of a unique company asset called a marketing network. A marketing network consists of the company and its supporting stakeholders (customers, employees, suppliers, distributors, university scientists, and others) with whom it has built mutually profitable business relationships. Increasingly, competition is not between companies but rather between marketing networks, with the profits going to the company that has the better network.11

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Construction Co. Want List 1. High-quality, durable equipment 2. Fair price 3. On-time delivery of equipment 4. Good financing terms 5. Good parts and service Caterpillar (marketer)

Construction Co. (prospect) Caterpillar Want List 1. Good price for equipment 2. On-time payment 3. Good word of mouth

Figure 1-2 Two-Party Exchange Map Showing Want Lists of Both Parties Marketing Channels To reach a target market, the marketer uses three kinds of marketing channels. Communication channels deliver messages to and receive messages from target buyers. They include newspapers, magazines, radio, television, mail, telephone, billboards, posters, fliers, CDs, audiotapes, and the Internet. Beyond these, communications are conveyed by facial expressions and clothing, the look of retail stores, and many other media. Marketers are increasingly adding dialogue channels (e-mail and toll-free numbers) to counterbalance the more normal monologue channels (such as ads). The marketer uses distribution channels to display or deliver the physical product or service(s) to the buyer or user. There are physical distribution channels and service distribution channels, which include warehouses, transportation vehicles, and various trade channels such as distributors, wholesalers, and retailers. The marketer also uses selling channels to effect transactions with potential buyers. Selling channels include not only the distributors and retailers but also the banks and insurance companies that facilitate transactions. Marketers clearly face a design problem in choosing the best mix of communication, distribution, and selling channels for their offerings. Supply Chain Whereas marketing channels connect the marketer to the target buyers, the supply chain describes a longer channel stretching from raw materials to components to final products that are carried to final buyers. For example, the supply chain for women’s purses starts with hides, tanning operations, cutting operations, manufacturing, and the marketing channels that bring products to customers. This supply chain represents a value delivery system. Each company captures only a certain percentage of the total value generated by the supply chain. When a company acquires competitors or moves upstream or downstream, its aim is to capture a higher percentage of supply chain value. Competition Competition, a critical factor in marketing management, includes all of the actual and potential rival offerings and substitutes that a buyer might consider. Suppose an automobile company is planning to buy steel for its cars. The car manufacturer can buy from U.S. Steel or other U.S. or foreign integrated steel mills; can go to a minimill such

Marketing Tasks

as Nucor to buy steel at a cost savings; can buy aluminum for certain parts of the car to lighten the car’s weight; or can buy some engineered plastics parts instead of steel. Clearly U.S. Steel would be thinking too narrowly of competition if it thought only of other integrated steel companies. In fact, U.S. Steel is more likely to be hurt in the long run by substitute products than by its immediate steel company rivals. U.S. Steel also must consider whether to make substitute materials or stick only to those applications in which steel offers superior performance. We can broaden the picture by distinguishing four levels of competition, based on degree of product substitutability: 1.

Brand competition: A company sees its competitors as other companies that offer similar products and services to the same customers at similar prices. Volkswagen might see its major competitors as Toyota, Honda, and other manufacturers of mediumprice automobiles, rather than Mercedes or Hyundai.

2.

Industry competition: A company sees its competitors as all companies that make the same product or class of products. Thus, Volkswagen would be competing against all other car manufacturers.

3.

Form competition: A company sees its competitors as all companies that manufacture products that supply the same service. Volkswagen would see itself competing against manufacturers of all vehicles, such as motorcycles, bicycles, and trucks.

4. Generic competition: A company sees its competitors as all companies that compete for the same consumer dollars. Volkswagen would see itself competing with companies that sell major consumer durables, foreign vacations, and new homes.

Marketing Environment Competition represents only one force in the environment in which all marketers operate. The overall marketing environment consists of the task environment and the broad environment. The task environment includes the immediate actors involved in producing, distributing, and promoting the offering, including the company, suppliers, distributors, dealers, and the target customers. Material suppliers and service suppliers such as marketing research agencies, advertising agencies, Web site designers, banking and insurance companies, and transportation and telecommunications companies are included in the supplier group. Agents, brokers, manufacturer representatives, and others who facilitate finding and selling to customers are included with distributors and dealers. The broad environment consists of six components: demographic environment, economic environment, natural environment, technological environment, political-legal environment, and social-cultural environment. These environments contain forces that can have a major impact on the actors in the task environment, which is why smart marketers track environmental trends and changes closely. Marketing Mix Marketers use numerous tools to elicit the desired responses from their target markets. These tools constitute a marketing mix:12 Marketing mix is the set of marketing tools that the firm uses to pursue its marketing objectives in the target market. As shown in Figure 1-3, McCarthy classified these tools into four broad groups that he called the four Ps of marketing: product, price, place, and promotion.13 Marketing-mix decisions must be made to influence the trade channels as well as the final consumers. Typically, the firm can change its price, sales-force size, and advertising expenditures in the short run. However, it can develop new products and modify its distribution channels only in the long run. Thus, the firm typically makes fewer

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Marketing Mix

Product

Place

Product variety Quality Design Features Brand name Packaging Sizes Services Warranties Returns

Channels Coverage Assortments Locations Inventory Transport

Target market

Price

Promotion

List price Discounts Allowances Payment period Credit terms

Sales promotion Advertising Sales force Public relations Direct marketing

Figure 1-3 The Four P Components of the Marketing Mix period-to-period marketing-mix changes in the short run than the number of marketing-mix decision variables might suggest. Robert Lauterborn suggested that the sellers’ four Ps correspond to the customers’ four Cs.14 Four Ps Product Price Place Promotion

Four Cs Customer solution Customer cost Convenience Communication

Winning companies are those that meet customer needs economically and conveniently and with effective communication.

COMPANY ORIENTATIONS TOWARD THE MARKETPLACE Marketing management is the conscious effort to achieve desired exchange outcomes with target markets. But what philosophy should guide a company’s marketing efforts? What relative weights should be given to the often conflicting interests of the organization, customers, and society? For example, one of Dexter Corporation’s most popular products was a profitable grade of paper used in tea bags. Unfortunately, the materials in this paper accounted for 98 percent of Dexter’s hazardous wastes. So while Dexter’s product was popular with customers, it was also detrimental to the environment. Dexter assigned an employee task force to tackle this problem. The task force succeeded, and the company increased its market share while virtually eliminating hazardous waste.15

Company Orientations Toward the Marketplace

Clearly, marketing activities should be carried out under a well-thought-out philosophy of efficient, effective, and socially responsible marketing. In fact, there are five competing concepts under which organizations conduct marketing activities: production concept, product concept, selling concept, marketing concept, and societal marketing concept. The Production Concept The production concept, one of the oldest in business, holds that consumers prefer products that are widely available and inexpensive. Managers of production-oriented businesses concentrate on achieving high production efficiency, low costs, and mass distribution. This orientation makes sense in developing countries, where consumers are more interested in obtaining the product than in its features. It is also used when a company wants to expand the market. Texas Instruments is a leading exponent of this concept. It concentrates on building production volume and upgrading technology in order to bring costs down, leading to lower prices and expansion of the market. This orientation has also been a key strategy of many Japanese companies. The Product Concept Other businesses are guided by the product concept, which holds that consumers favor those products that offer the most quality, performance, or innovative features. Managers in these organizations focus on making superior products and improving them over time, assuming that buyers can appraise quality and performance. Product-oriented companies often design their products with little or no customer input, trusting that their engineers can design exceptional products. A General Motors executive said years ago: “How can the public know what kind of car they want until they see what is available?” GM today asks customers what they value in a car and includes marketing people in the very beginning stages of design. However, the product concept can lead to marketing myopia.16 Railroad management thought that travelers wanted trains rather than transportation and overlooked the growing competition from airlines, buses, trucks, and automobiles. Colleges, department stores, and the post office all assume that they are offering the public the right product and wonder why their sales slip. These organizations too often are looking into a mirror when they should be looking out of the window.

The Selling Concept The selling concept, another common business orientation, holds that consumers and businesses, if left alone, will ordinarily not buy enough of the organization’s products. The organization must, therefore, undertake an aggressive selling and promotion effort. This concept assumes that consumers must be coaxed into buying, so the company has a battery of selling and promotion tools to stimulate buying. The selling concept is practiced most aggressively with unsought goods—goods that buyers normally do not think of buying, such as insurance and funeral plots. The selling concept is also practiced in the nonprofit area by fund-raisers, college admissions offices, and political parties. Most firms practice the selling concept when they have overcapacity. Their aim is to sell what they make rather than make what the market wants. In modern industrial economies, productive capacity has been built up to a point where most markets are buyer markets (the buyers are dominant) and sellers have to scramble for customers. Prospects are bombarded with sales messages. As a result, the public often identifies marketing with hard selling and advertising. But marketing based on hard selling carries high risks. It assumes that customers who are coaxed into buying a product will like it;

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and if they don’t, that they won’t bad-mouth it or complain to consumer organizations and will forget their disappointment and buy it again. These are indefensible assumptions. In fact, one study showed that dissatisfied customers may bad-mouth the product to 10 or more acquaintances; bad news travels fast, something marketers that use hard selling should bear in mind.17

The Marketing Concept The marketing concept, based on central tenets crystallized in the mid-1950s, challenges the three business orientations we just discussed.18 The marketing concept holds that the key to achieving organizational goals consists of the company being more effective than its competitors in creating, delivering, and communicating customer value to its chosen target markets. Theodore Levitt of Harvard drew a perceptive contrast between the selling and marketing concepts: “Selling focuses on the needs of the seller; marketing on the needs of the buyer. Selling is preoccupied with the seller’s need to convert his product into cash; marketing with the idea of satisfying the needs of the customer by means of the product and the whole cluster of things associated with creating, delivering and finally consuming it.”19 The marketing concept rests on four pillars: target market, customer needs, integrated marketing, and profitability. The selling concept takes an inside-out perspective. It starts with the factory, focuses on existing products, and calls for heavy selling and promoting to produce profitable sales. The marketing concept takes an outside-in perspective. It starts with a well-defined market, focuses on customer needs, coordinates activities that affect customers, and produces profits by satisfying customers. Target Market Companies do best when they choose their target market(s) carefully and prepare tailored marketing programs. For example, when cosmetics giant Estee Lauder recognized the increased buying power of minority groups, its Prescriptives subsidiary launched an “All Skins” line offering 115 foundation shades for different skin tones. Prescriptives credits All Skins for a 45 percent sales increase since this product line was launched. Customer Needs A company can carefully define its target market yet fail to correctly understand the customers’ needs. Clearly, understanding customer needs and wants is not always simple. Some customers have needs of which they are not fully conscious; some cannot articulate these needs or use words that require some interpretation. We can distinguish among five types of needs: (1) stated needs, (2) real needs, (3) unstated needs, (4) delight needs, and (5) secret needs. Responding only to the stated need may shortchange the customer. For example, if a customer enters a hardware store and asks for a sealant to seal glass window panes, she is stating a solution, not a need. If the salesperson suggests that tape would provide a better solution, the customer may appreciate that the salesperson met her need and not her stated solution. A distinction needs to be drawn between responsive marketing, anticipative marketing, and creative marketing. A responsive marketer finds a stated need and fills it, while an anticipative marketer looks ahead to the needs that customers may have in the near future. In contrast, a creative marketer discovers and produces solutions that customers did not ask for, but to which they enthusiastically respond. Sony exemplifies a creative marketer because it has introduced many successful new products that customers never asked for or even thought were possible: Walkmans, VCRs, and so on. Sony goes beyond customer-led marketing: It is a market-driving firm, not just a market-driven firm. Akio Morita, its founder, proclaimed that he doesn’t serve markets; he creates markets.20

Company Orientations Toward the Marketplace

Why is it supremely important to satisfy the needs of target customers? Because a company’s sales come from two groups: new customers and repeat customers. One estimate is that attracting a new customer can cost five times as much as pleasing an existing one.21 And it might cost 16 times as much to bring the new customer to the same level of profitability as that of the lost customer. Customer retention is thus more important than customer attraction. Integrated Marketing When all of the company’s departments work together to serve the customers’ interests, the result is integrated marketing. Integrated marketing takes place on two levels. First, the various marketing functions—sales force, advertising, customer service, product management, marketing research—must work together. All of these functions must be coordinated from the customer’s point of view. Second, marketing must be embraced by the other departments. According to David Packard of Hewlett-Packard: “Marketing is far too important to be left only to the marketing department!” Marketing is not a department so much as a companywide orientation. Xerox, for example, goes so far as to include in every job description an explanation of how each job affects the customer. Xerox factory managers know that visits to the factory can help sell a potential customer if the factory is clean and efficient. Xerox accountants know that customer attitudes are affected by Xerox’s billing accuracy. To foster teamwork among all departments, the company must carry out internal marketing as well as external marketing. External marketing is marketing directed at people outside the company. Internal marketing is the task of hiring, training, and motivating able employees who want to serve customers well. In fact, internal marketing must precede external marketing. It makes no sense to promise excellent service before the company’s staff is ready to provide it. Managers who believe the customer is the company’s only true “profit center” consider the traditional organization chart—a pyramid with the CEO at the top, management in the middle, and front-line people and customers at the bottom—obsolete. Master marketing companies invert the chart, putting customers at the top. Next in importance are the front-line people who meet, serve, and satisfy the customers; under them are the middle managers, who support the front-line people so they can serve the customers; and at the base is top management, whose job is to hire and support good middle managers. Profitability The ultimate purpose of the marketing concept is to help organizations achieve their objectives. In the case of private firms, the major objective is profit; in the case of nonprofit and public organizations, it is surviving and attracting enough funds to perform useful work. Private firms should aim to achieve profits as a consequence of creating superior customer value, by satisfying customer needs better than competitors. For example, Perdue Farms has achieved above-average margins marketing chicken—a commodity if there ever was one! The company has always aimed to control breeding and other factors in order to produce tender-tasting chickens for which discriminating customers will pay more.22 How many companies actually practice the marketing concept? Unfortunately, too few. Only a handful of companies stand out as master marketers: Procter & Gamble, Disney, Nordstrom, Wal-Mart, Milliken & Company, McDonald’s, Marriott Hotels, American Airlines, and several Japanese (Sony, Toyota, Canon) and European companies (IKEA, Club Med, Nokia, ABB, Marks & Spencer). These companies focus on the customer and are organized to respond effectively to changing customer

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CHAPTER 1 MARKETING IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

needs. They all have well-staffed marketing departments, and all of their other departments—manufacturing, finance, research and development, personnel, purchasing— accept the customer as king. Most companies do not embrace the marketing concept until driven to it by circumstances. Various developments prod them to take the marketing concept to heart, including sales declines, slow growth, changing buying patterns, more competition, and higher expenses. Despite the benefits, firms face three hurdles in converting to a marketing orientation: organized resistance, slow learning, and fast forgetting. Some company departments (often manufacturing, finance, and research and development) believe a stronger marketing function threatens their power in the organization. Resistance is especially strong in industries in which marketing is being introduced for the first time—for instance, in law offices, colleges, deregulated industries, and government agencies. In spite of the resistance, many companies manage to introduce some marketing thinking into their organization. Over time, marketing emerges as the major function. Ultimately, the customer becomes the controlling function, and with that view, marketing can emerge as the integrative function within the organization.

The Societal Marketing Concept Some have questioned whether the marketing concept is an appropriate philosophy in an age of environmental deterioration, resource shortages, explosive population growth, world hunger and poverty, and neglected social services. Are companies that successfully satisfy consumer wants necessarily acting in the best, long-run interests of consumers and society? The marketing concept sidesteps the potential conflicts among consumer wants, consumer interests, and long-run societal welfare. Yet some firms and industries are criticized for satisfying consumer wants at society’s expense. Such situations call for a new term that enlarges the marketing concept. We propose calling it the societal marketing concept, which holds that the organization’s task is to determine the needs, wants, and interests of target markets and to deliver the desired satisfactions more effectively and efficiently than competitors in a way that preserves or enhances the consumer’s and the society’s well-being. The societal marketing concept calls upon marketers to build social and ethical considerations into their marketing practices. They must balance and juggle the often conflicting criteria of company profits, consumer want satisfaction, and public interest. Yet a number of companies have achieved notable sales and profit gains by adopting and practicing the societal marketing concept. Some companies practice a form of the societal marketing concept called causerelated marketing. Pringle and Thompson define this as “activity by which a company with an image, product, or service to market builds a relationship or partnership with a ‘cause,’ or a number of ‘causes,’ for mutual benefit.”23 They see it as affording an opportunity for companies to enhance their corporate reputation, raise brand awareness, increase customer loyalty, build sales, and increase press coverage. They believe that customers will increasingly look for demonstrations of good corporate citizenship. Smart companies will respond by adding “higher order” image attributes than simply rational and emotional benefits. Critics, however, complain that cause-related marketing might make consumers feel they have fulfilled their philanthropic duties by buying products instead of donating to causes directly.

HOW BUSINESS AND MARKETING ARE CHANGING We can say with some confidence that “the marketplace isn’t what it used to be.” It is changing radically as a result of major forces such as technological advances, globalization, and deregulation. These forces have created new behaviors and challenges:

How Business and Marketing are Changing

Customers increasingly expect higher quality and service and some customization. They perceive fewer real product differences and show less brand loyalty. They can obtain extensive product information from the Internet and other sources, permitting them to shop more intelligently. They are showing greater price sensitivity in their search for value. Brand manufacturers are facing intense competition from domestic and foreign brands, which is resulting in rising promotion costs and shrinking profit margins. They are being further buffeted by powerful retailers who command limited shelf space and are putting out their own store brands in competition with national brands. Store-based retailers are suffering from an oversaturation of retailing. Small retailers are succumbing to the growing power of giant retailers and “category killers.” Store-based retailers are facing growing competition from direct-mail firms; newspaper, magazine, and TV direct-to-customer ads; home shopping TV; and the Internet. As a result, they are experiencing shrinking margins. In response, entrepreneurial retailers are building entertainment into stores with coffee bars, lectures, demonstrations, and performances, marketing an “experience” rather than a product assortment.

Company Responses and Adjustments Given these changes, companies are doing a lot of soul-searching, and many highly respected firms are adjusting in a number of ways. Here are some current trends: ➤

Reengineering: From focusing on functional departments to reorganizing by key processes, each managed by multidiscipline teams.



Outsourcing: From making everything inside the company to buying more products from outside if they can be obtained cheaper and better. Virtual companies outsource everything, so they own very few assets and, therefore, earn extraordinary rates of return.



E-commerce: From attracting customers to stores and having salespeople call on offices to making virtually all products available on the Internet. Business-tobusiness purchasing is growing fast on the Internet, and personal selling can increasingly be conducted electronically.



Benchmarking: From relying on self-improvement to studying world-class performers and adopting best practices.



Alliances: From trying to win alone to forming networks of partner firms.24



Partner–suppliers: From using many suppliers to using fewer but more reliable suppliers who work closely in a “partnership” relationship with the company.



Market-centered: From organizing by products to organizing by market segment.



Global and local: From being local to being both global and local.



Decentralized: From being managed from the top to encouraging more initiative and “intrepreneurship” at the local level.

Marketer Responses and Adjustments As the environment changes and companies adjust, marketers also are rethinking their philosophies, concepts, and tools. Here are the major marketing themes at the start of the new millennium: ➤

Relationship marketing: From focusing on transactions to building long-term, profitable customer relationships. Companies focus on their most profitable customers, products, and channels.

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CHAPTER 1 MARKETING IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY ➤

Customer lifetime value: From making a profit on each sale to making profits by managing customer lifetime value. Some companies offer to deliver a constantly needed product on a regular basis at a lower price per unit because they will enjoy the customer’s business for a longer period.



Customer share: From a focus on gaining market share to a focus on building customer share. Companies build customer share by offering a larger variety of goods to their existing customers and by training employees in cross-selling and up-selling.



Target marketing: From selling to everyone to trying to be the best firm serving welldefined target markets. Target marketing is being facilitated by the proliferation of special-interest magazines, TV channels, and Internet newsgroups.



Individualization: From selling the same offer in the same way to everyone in the target market to individualizing and customizing messages and offerings.



Customer database: From collecting sales data to building a data warehouse of information about individual customers’ purchases, preferences, demographics, and profitability. Companies can “data-mine” their proprietary databases to detect different customer need clusters and make differentiated offerings to each cluster.



Integrated marketing communications: From reliance on one communication tool such as advertising to blending several tools to deliver a consistent brand image to customers at every brand contact.



Channels as partners: From thinking of intermediaries as customers to treating them as partners in delivering value to final customers.



Every employee a marketer: From thinking that marketing is done only by marketing, sales, and customer support personnel to recognizing that every employee must be customer-focused.



Model-based decision making: From making decisions on intuition or slim data to basing decisions on models and facts on how the marketplace works.

These major themes will be examined throughout this book to help marketers and companies sail safely through the rough, but promising, waters ahead. Successful companies will change their marketing as fast as their marketplaces and marketspaces change, so they can build customer satisfaction, value, and retention, the subject of Chapter 2.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY All marketers need to be aware of the effect of globalization, technology, and deregulation. Rather than try to satisfy everyone, marketers start with market segmentation and develop a market offering that is positioned in the minds of the target market. To satisfy the target market’s needs, wants, and demands, marketers create a product, one of the 10 types of entities (goods, services, experiences, events, persons, places, properties, organizations, information, and ideas). Marketers must search hard for the core need they are trying to satisfy, remembering that their products will be successful only if they deliver value (the ratio of benefits and costs) to customers. Every marketing exchange requires at least two parties—both with something valued by the other party, both capable of communication and delivery, both free to accept or reject the offer, and both finding it appropriate or desirable to deal with the other. One agreement to exchange constitutes a transaction, part of the larger idea of relationship marketing. Through relationship marketing, organizations aim to build enduring, mutually satisfying bonds with customers and other key parties to earn and retain their long-term business. Reaching out to a target market entails communica-

Notes

tion channels, distribution channels, and selling channels. The supply chain, which stretches from raw materials to the final products for final buyers, represents a value delivery system. Marketers can capture more of the supply chain value by acquiring competitors or expanding upstream or downstream. In the marketing environment, marketers face brand, industry, form, and generic competition. The marketing environment can be divided into the task environment (the immediate actors in producing, distributing, and promoting the product offering) and the broad environment (forces in the demographic, economic, natural, technological, political-legal, and social-cultural environment). To succeed, marketers must pay close attention to the trends and developments in these environments and make timely adjustments to their marketing strategies. Within these environments, marketers apply the marketing mix—the set of marketing tools used to pursue marketing objectives in the target market. The marketing mix consists of the four Ps: product, price, place, and promotion. Companies can adopt one of five orientations toward the marketplace. The production concept assumes that consumers want widely available, affordable products; the product concept assumes that consumers want products with the most quality, performance, or innovative features; the selling concept assumes that customers will not buy enough products without an aggressive selling and promotion effort; the marketing concept assumes the firm must be better than competitors in creating, delivering, and communicating customer value to its chosen target markets; and the societal marketing concept assumes that the firm must satisfy customers more effectively and efficiently than competitors while still preserving the consumer’s and the society’s wellbeing. Keeping this concept in mind, smart companies will add “higher order” image attributes to supplement both rational and emotional benefits. The combination of technology, globalization, and deregulation is influencing customers, brand manufacturers, and store-based retailers in a variety of ways. Responding to the changes and new demands brought on by these forces has caused many companies to make adjustments. In turn, savvy marketers must also alter their marketing activities, tools, and approaches to keep pace with the changes they will face today and tomorrow.

NOTES 1. Sam Hill and Glenn Rifkin, Radical Marketing (New York: HarperBusiness, 1999). 2. “Boston Beer Reports Barrelage Down, But Net Sales Stable,” Modern Brewery Age, March 1, 1999, accessed on www.hoovers.com. 3. Jay Conrad Levinson and Seth Grodin, The Guerrilla Marketing Handbook (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1994). 4. See Irving J. Rein, Philip Kotler, and Martin Stoller, High Visibility (Chicago: NTC Publishers, 1998). 5. See Philip Kotler, Irving J. Rein, and Donald Haider, Marketing Places: Attracting Investment, Industry, and Tourism to Cities, States, and Nations (New York: Free Press, 1993). 6. See Carl Shapiro and Hal R. Varian, “Versioning: The Smart Way to Sell Information,” Harvard Business Review, November–December 1998, pp. 106–14. 7. Peter Drucker, Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices (New York: Harper & Row, 1973), pp. 64–65. 8. Dictionary of Marketing Terms, 2d ed., ed. Peter D. Bennett (Chicago: American Marketing Association, 1995). 9. From a lecture by Mohan Sawhney, faculty member at Kellogg Graduate School of Management, Northwestern University, June 4, 1998.

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CHAPTER 1 MARKETING IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY 10. See Regis McKenna, Relationship Marketing (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1991); Martin Christopher, Adrian Payne, and David Ballantyne, Relationship Marketing: Bringing Quality, Customer Service, and Marketing Together (Oxford, UK: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1991); and Jagdish N. Sheth and Atul Parvatiyar, eds., Relationship Marketing: Theory, Methods, and Applications, 1994 Research Conference Proceedings, Center for Relationship Marketing, Roberto C. Goizueta Business School, Emory University, Atlanta, GA. 11. See James C. Anderson, Hakan Hakansson, and Jan Johanson, “Dyadic Business Relationships Within a Business Network Context,” Journal of Marketing, October 15, 1994, pp. 1–15. 12. See Neil H. Borden, The Concept of the Marketing Mix, Journal of Advertising Research, 4 ( June): 2–7. For another framework, see George S. Day, “The Capabilities of MarketDriven Organizations,” Journal of Marketing, 58, no. 4 (October 1994): 37–52. 13. E. Jerome McCarthy, Basic Marketing: A Managerial Approach, 13th ed. (Homewood, IL: Irwin, 1999). Two alternative classifications are worth noting. Frey proposed that all marketing decision variables could be categorized into two factors: the offering (product, packaging, brand, price, and service) and methods and tools (distribution channels, personal selling, advertising, sales promotion, and publicity). 14. Robert Lauterborn, “New Marketing Litany: 4Ps Passe; C-Words Take Over,” Advertising Age, October 1, 1990, p. 26. Also see Frederick E. Webster Jr., “Defining the New Marketing Concept,” Marketing Management 2, no. 4 (1994), 22–31; and Frederick E. Webster Jr., “Executing the New Marketing Concept,” Marketing Management 3, no. 1 (1994): 8–16. See also Ajay Menon and Anil Menon, “Enviropreneurial Marketing Strategy: The Emergence of Corporate Environmentalism as Marketing Strategy,” Journal of Marketing 61, no. 1 ( January 1997): 51–67. 15. Kathleen Dechant and Barbara Altman, “Environmental Leadership: From Compliance to Competitive Advantage,” Academy of Management Executive 8, no. 3 (1994): 7–19. Also see Gregory R. Elliott, “The Marketing Concept: Necessary, but Sufficient? An Environmental View,” European Journal of Marketing 24, no. 8 (1990): 20–30. 16. See Theodore Levitt’s classic article, “Marketing Myopia,” Harvard Business Review, July–August 1960, pp. 45–56. 17. See Karl Albrecht and Ron Zemke, Service America! (Homewood, IL: Dow Jones-Irwin, 1985), pp. 6–7. 18. See John B. McKitterick, “What Is the Marketing Management Concept?” The Frontiers of Marketing Thought and Action (Chicago: American Marketing Association, 1957), pp. 71–82; Fred J. Borch, The Marketing Philosophy as a Way of Business Life, The Marketing Concept: Its Meaning to Management, Marketing series, no. 99 (New York: American Management Association, 1957), pp. 3–5; and Robert J. Keith, “The Marketing Revolution,” Journal of Marketing, January 1960, pp. 35–38. 19. Levitt, “Marketing Myopia,” p. 50. 20. Akio Morita, Made in Japan (New York: Dutton, 1986), ch. 1. 21. See Patricia Sellers, “Getting Customers to Love You,” Fortune, March 13, 1989, pp. 38–49. 22. Suzanne L. MacLachlan, “Son Now Beats Perdue Drumstick,” Christian Science Monitor, March 9, 1995, p. 9; Sharon Nelton, “Crowing over Leadership Succession,” Nation’s Business, May 1995, p. 52. 23. See Hanish Pringle and Marjorie Thompson, Brand Soul: How Cause-Related Marketing Builds Brands (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1999). Also see Marilyn Collins, “Global Corporate Philanthropy—Marketing Beyond the Call of Duty?” European Journal of Marketing 27, no. 2 (1993): 46–58. 24. See Leonard L. Berry, Discovering the Soul of Service (New York: Free Press, 1999), especially ch. 7.

Winning Markets Through Strategic Planning, Implementation, and Control We will address the following questions: ■ How is strategic planning carried out at the corporate, division, and business-unit levels? ■ What are the major steps in planning the marketing process? ■ How can a company effectively manage the marketing process?

H

ow do companies compete in a global marketplace? One part of the answer is a commitment to creating and retaining satisfied customers. We can now add a second part: Successful companies know how to adapt to a continuously changing marketplace through strategic planning and careful management of the marketing process. In most large companies, corporate headquarters is responsible for designing a corporate strategic plan to guide the whole enterprise and deciding about resource allocations as well as starting and eliminating particular businesses. Guided by the corporate strategic plan, each division establishes a division plan for each business unit within the division; in turn, each business unit develops a business unit strategic plan. Finally, the managers of each product line and brand within a business unit develop a marketing plan for achieving their objectives. However, the development of a marketing plan is not the end of the marketing process. High-performance firms must hone their expertise in organizing, implementing, and controlling marketing activities as they follow marketing results closely, diagnose problems, and take corrective action when necessary. In today’s fast-paced business world, the ability to effectively manage the marketing process—beginning to end—has become an extremely important competitive advantage.

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CORPORATE AND DIVISION STRATEGIC PLANNING Marketing plays a critical role in corporate strategic planning within successful companies. Market-oriented strategic planning is the managerial process of developing and maintaining a viable fit among the organization’s objectives, skills, and resources and its changing market opportunities. The aim of strategic planning is to shape the company’s businesses and products so that they yield target profits and growth and keep the company healthy despite any unexpected threats that may arise. Strategic planning calls for action in three key areas. The first area is managing a company’s businesses as an investment portfolio. The second area involves assessing each business’s strength by considering the market’s growth rate and the company’s position and fit in that market. And the third area is the development of strategy, a game plan for achieving long-term objectives. The complete strategic planning, implementation, and control cycle is shown in Figure 1-4. Corporate headquarters starts the strategic planning process by preparing statements of mission, policy, strategy, and goals, establishing the framework within which the divisions and business units will prepare their plans. Some corporations allow their business units a great deal of freedom in setting sales and profit goals and strategies. Others set goals for their business units but let them develop their own strategies. Still others set the goals and get involved heavily in the individual business unit strategies.1 Regardless of the degree of involvement, all strategic plans are based on the corporate mission.

Defining the Corporate Mission An organization exists to accomplish something: to make cars, lend money, provide a night’s lodging, and so on. Its specific mission or purpose is usually clear when the business starts. Over time, however, the mission may lose its relevance because of changed market conditions or may become unclear as the corporation adds new products and markets. When management senses that the organization is drifting from its mission, it must renew its search for purpose. According to Peter Drucker, it is time to ask some fundamental questions.2 What is our business? Who is the customer? What is of value to the customer? What will our business be? What should our business be? Successful companies continuously raise these questions and answer them thoughtfully and thoroughly.

Figure 1-4 The Strategic Planning, Implementation, and Control Process Planning

Implementing

Controlling

Corporate planning

Organizing

Measuring results

Division planning

Implementing Diagnosing results

Business planning Product planning

Taking corrective action

Corporate and Division Strategic Planning

A well-worked-out mission statement provides employees with a shared sense of purpose, direction, and opportunity. It also guides geographically dispersed employees to work independently and yet collectively toward realizing the organization’s goals. The mission statement of Motorola, for example, is “to honorably serve the needs of the community by providing products and services of superior quality at a fair price to our customers; to do this so as to earn an adequate profit which is required for the total enterprise to grow; and by so doing provide the opportunity for our employees and shareholders to achieve their reasonable personal objectives.” Good mission statements focus on a limited number of goals, stress the company’s major policies and values, and define the company’s major competitive scopes. These include: ➤

Industry scope: The industry or range of industries in which a company will operate. For example, DuPont operates in the industrial market; Dow operates in the industrial and consumer markets; and 3M will go into almost any industry where it can make money.



Products and applications scope: The range of products and applications that a company will supply. St. Jude Medical aims to “serve physicians worldwide with highquality products for cardiovascular care.”



Competence scope: The range of technological and other core competencies that a company will master and leverage. Japan’s NEC has built its core competencies in computing, communications, and components to support production of laptop computers, televisions, and other electronics items.



Market-segment scope: The type of market or customers a company will serve. For example, Porsche makes only expensive cars for the upscale market and licenses its name for high-quality accessories.



Vertical scope: The number of channel levels from raw material to final product and distribution in which a company will participate. At one extreme are companies with a large vertical scope; at the other extreme are firms with low or no vertical integration that may outsource design, manufacture, marketing, and physical distribution.3



Geographical scope: The range of regions or countries in which a company will operate. At one extreme are companies that operate in a specific city or state. At the other extreme are multinationals such as Unilever and Caterpillar, which operate in almost every one of the world’s countries.

A company must redefine its mission if that mission has lost credibility or no longer defines an optimal course for the company.4 Kodak redefined itself from a film company to an image company so that it could add digital imaging;5 Sara Lee redefined itself by outsourcing manufacturing and becoming a marketer of brands. The corporate mission provides direction for the firm’s various business units.

Establishing Strategic Business Units A business can be defined in terms of three dimensions: customer groups, customer needs, and technology.6 For example, a company that defines its business as designing incandescent lighting systems for television studios would have television studios as its customer group; lighting as its customer need; and incandescent lighting as its technology. In line with Levitt’s argument that market definitions of a business are superior to product definitions,7 these three dimensions describe the business in terms of a customer-satisfying process, not a goods-producing process. Thus, Xerox’s product

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definition would be “We make copying equipment,” while its market definition would be “We help improve office productivity.” Similarly, Missouri-Pacific Railroad’s product definition would be “We run a railroad,” while its market definition would be “We are a people-and-goods mover.” Large companies normally manage quite different businesses, each requiring its own strategy; General Electric, as one example, has established 49 strategic business units (SBUs). An SBU has three characteristics: (1) It is a single business or collection of related businesses that can be planned separately from the rest of the company; (2) it has its own set of competitors; and (3) it has a manager responsible for strategic planning and profit performance who controls most of the factors affecting profit.

Assigning Resources to SBUs The purpose of identifying the company’s strategic business units is to develop separate strategies and assign appropriate funding to the entire business portfolio. Senior managers generally apply analytical tools to classify all of their SBUs according to profit potential. Two of the best-known business portfolio evaluation models are the Boston Consulting Group model and the General Electric model.8 The Boston Consulting Group Approach The Boston Consulting Group (BCG), a leading management consulting firm, developed and popularized the growth-share matrix shown in Figure 1-5. The eight circles represent the current sizes and positions of eight business units in a hypothetical company. The dollar-volume size of each business is proportional to the circle’s area. Thus, the two largest businesses are 5 and 6. The location of each business unit indicates its market growth rate and relative market share. The market growth rate on the vertical axis indicates the annual growth rate of the market in which the business operates. Relative market share, which is measured on the horizontal axis, refers to the SBU’s market share relative to that of its largest competitor in the segment. It serves as a measure of the company’s strength in the relevant market segment. The growth-share matrix is divided into four cells, each indicating a different type of business: ➤

Question marks are businesses that operate in high-growth markets but have low relative market shares. Most businesses start off as question marks as the company tries to enter a high-growth market in which there is already a market leader. A question mark requires a lot of cash because the company is spending money on plant, equipment, and personnel. The term question mark is appropriate because the company has to think hard about whether to keep pouring money into this business.



Stars are market leaders in a high-growth market. A star was once a question mark, but it does not necessarily produce positive cash flow; the company must still spend to keep up with the high market growth and fight off competition.



Cash cows are former stars with the largest relative market share in a slow-growth market. A cash cow produces a lot of cash for the company (due to economies of scale and higher profit margins), paying the company’s bills and supporting its other businesses.



Dogs are businesses with weak market shares in low-growth markets; typically, these generate low profits or even losses.

After plotting its various businesses in the growth-share matrix, a company must determine whether the portfolio is healthy. An unbalanced portfolio would have too many

Corporate and Division Strategic Planning

Stars

Question Marks

20% 4

18%

1

Market Growth Rate

16%

3

14%

2

12%

5

10%

Dogs

Cash Cow

8% 6% 6

4%

7

2%

8 0.1x

0.2x

0.5x 0.4x 0.3x

1x

2x 1.5x

4x

10x

0 Relative Market Share

Figure 1-5 The Boston Consulting Group’s Growth-Share Matrix dogs or question marks or too few stars and cash cows. The next task is to determine what objective, strategy, and budget to assign to each SBU. Four strategies can be pursued: 1.

Build: The objective here is to increase market share, even forgoing short-term earnings to achieve this objective if necessary. Building is appropriate for question marks whose market shares must grow if they are to become stars.

2.

Hold: The objective in a hold strategy is to preserve market share, an appropriate strategy for strong cash cows if they are to continue yielding a large positive cash flow.

3. Harvest: The objective here is to increase short-term cash flow regardless of long-term effect. Harvesting involves a decision to withdraw from a business by implementing a program of continuous cost retrenchment. The hope is to reduce costs faster than any potential drop in sales, thus boosting cash flow. This strategy is appropriate for weak cash cows whose future is dim and from which more cash flow is needed. Harvesting can also be used with question marks and dogs. 4.

Divest: The objective is to sell or liquidate the business because the resources can be better used elsewhere. This is appropriate for dogs and question marks that are dragging down company profits.

Successful SBUs move through a life cycle, starting as question marks and becoming stars, then cash cows, and finally dogs. Given this life-cycle movement, companies should be aware not only of their SBUs’ current positions in the growth-share matrix (as in a snapshot), but also of their moving positions (as in a motion picture). If an SBU’s expected future trajectory is not satisfactory, the corporation will need to work out a new strategy to improve the likely trajectory.

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CONTENTS Business Communication

Management

Business Communications - Special Topics........................ 21

Business and Society........................................................100

Business Communications - Supplements.......................... 20

Business Environment.......................................................129

Business English.................................................................18

Business Ethics.................................................................102

Business Writing..................................................................19

Business in Asia..................................................................97

Grammar.............................................................................19

Business Policy & Strategic Management Cases............. 128

International Business Communication...............................17

Business Policy & Strategic Management - Software....... 128

Interpersonal Skills..............................................................20

Business Policy & Strategic Management - Textbooks..... 119

Introduction to Business Communication............................ 11

Change..............................................................................108

Leadership Communication.................................................18

Compensation.....................................................................88

Managerial Communication.................................................15

Employee Benefits............................................................130

Professional References.....................................................22

Entrepreneurship............................................................... 114 Entrepreneurship - Supplements....................................... 118

Business Law

Human Relations.................................................................73 Human Resource Management - Supplements.................. 84

Business Law......................................................................27

Human Resource Management - Textbooks....................... 76

Employment Law.................................................................34

Human Resource Strategy..................................................86

International Business Law.................................................34

International Business - Supplements................................. 96

Legal Environment of Business...........................................32

International Business - Textbooks......................................93

Professional References.....................................................36

International Human Resource Management...................... 92 International Management...................................................98 Labor Relations & Collective Bargaining............................. 90

E-Commerce

Leadership.........................................................................109

Business Process & Re-engineering...................................40

Management & Organizational Behavior Combination....... 73

Cyberlaw and Ethics............................................................41

Management Skills..............................................................75

Cyberpreneurship................................................................41

Negotiation........................................................................ 111

E-Commerce Cases Book...................................................42

Organizational Behavior - Supplements.............................. 72

Internet Marketing...............................................................41

Organizational Behavior - Textbooks...................................64

Introduction to E-Commerce...............................................39

Organization Development................................................107

Professional References.....................................................47

Principles of Management - Supplements........................... 61

Purchasing and Supply Chain Management....................... 43

Principles of Management - Textbooks................................ 55

Risk Management...............................................................42

Professional References...................................................134

Strategy...............................................................................42

Small Business Management............................................ 113

Technology/Infrastructure....................................................39

Staffing................................................................................87 Supervision..........................................................................63 Technology & Innovation...................................................131 Training and Development..................................................89

1



CONTENTS

Business Administration

Marketing

Introduction to Business - Textbooks.................................161

Advertising & Promotion / IMC..........................................213 Advertising Supplements...................................................216 Brand Marketing................................................................228

Keyboarding & Office Technology

Business to Business........................................................219

Customer Service..............................................................168

International Marketing......................................................225

Keyboarding......................................................................167

Internet Marketing.............................................................229

Keyboarding Advanced.....................................................168

Introductory Marketing - Supplement................................200

Office Management...........................................................169

Logistics............................................................................222

Customer Relation Management.......................................232 Consumer Behavior...........................................................204

Marketing Management - Text...........................................207 Marketing Management - Text & Cases............................ 210

Management Information System

Marketing Planning............................................................229

Advanced MIS...................................................................184

Marketing - Software.........................................................201

Computers in Society/Computer Ethics.............................184

New Product Management................................................221

Database Management.....................................................179

Public Relations.................................................................231

Data Communications/Telecommunications/

Product Design..................................................................221

Marketing Principles..........................................................193 Marketing Research..........................................................202

Office Systems.............................................................182

Product Management........................................................220

Data Mining.......................................................................186

Professional References...................................................234

Decision Support Systems................................................183

Retail Management...........................................................222

Enterprise Resource Planning...........................................185

Sales Management...........................................................218

Introduction to Information Systems..................................173

Selling................................................................................216

Management Information Systems....................................174

Services Marketing............................................................227

Object-Oriented System Analysis & Design...................... 181

Special Topics in Marketing...............................................233

Professional References...................................................186

Strategic Marketing - Cases..............................................212

Project Management.........................................................183

Strategic Marketing - Text..................................................210

System Analysis & Design.................................................180

Strategic Marketing - Text & Cases...................................212 Travel and Tourism............................................................230

Indexes Author Indexes..................................................................257 Title Indexes......................................................................243

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McGraw-Hill Connect™ is an online assignment and assessment solution that connects your students with the tools and resources they’ll need to achieve success.

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NEW TITLES BUSINESS COMMUNICATION

2011

Author

ISBN

Managerial Communication: Strategies and Applications, 5e

Hynes

9780073377759

15

Lesikar’s Business Communication: Connecting in a Digital World, 12e

Rentz

9780073377797

11

The Greg Reference Manual: A Manual of Style, Grammar, Usage, and Formatting

Sabin

9780073397108

19

Varner

9780073377742

17

Author

ISBN



Page

Tribute Edition, 11e

Intercultural Communication in the Global Workplace, 5e

BUSINESS COMMUNICATION

2010

Page

Communications at Work: Principles and Practices for Business and the Professions, 10e Adler

9780073385174

11

Leadership Communication, 3e

Barrett

9780073377773

18

Business Communication for the Global Age [Aust]

Crossman

9780070140042

17

M: Business Communication

Flatley

9780077314064

12

Business and Administrative Communication, 9e

Locker

9780073377803

12

2010

Author

ISBN

Introduction to Business Law in Singapore, 4e [Asian]

Chandran

9780071272179

27

Dynamic Business Law: The Essentials

Kubasek

9780073377681

27

Essentials of Business Law, 7e

Liuzzo

9780073377056

28

Business Law: The Ethical, Global and ECommerce Environment, 14e

Mallor

9780073377643

28

The Legal and Regulatory Environment of Business, 15e

Reed

9780073377667

32

Employment Law: Going Beyond Compliance to Engagement and Empowerment

Twomey

9780073026978

34

BUSINESS LAW

3

Page

NEW TITLES E-COMMERCE

2011

Author

ISBN

Purchasing Supply Management, 14e

Leenders

9780073377896

2010

Author

ISBN

Purchasing and Supply Chain Management, 2e

Benton

9780073525198

43

Supply Chain Logistics Management, 3e

Bowersox

9780073377872

43

Supply Management, 8e

Burt

9780073381459

44

2011

Author

ISBN

Entrepreneurship: A Small Business Approach

Bamford

9780073403113

114

Transnational Management: Text and Cases, 6e

Bartlett

9780078137112

98

Management: Leading and Collaborating in the Competitive World, 9e

Bateman

9780078137242

55

M: Management, 2e

Bateman

9780078137235

55

Organizational Behavior: Essentials for Improving Performance and Commitment

Colquitt

9780078112553

65

Organizational Behavior: Improving Performance and Commitment in the Workplace, 2e Colquitt

9780078137174

64

An Introduction to Business Ethics, 4e

DesJardins

9780073535814

102

The Global Challenge: International Human Resource Management, 2e

Evans

9780073530376

92

Essentials of Strategic Management: The Quest for Competitive Advantage, 2e

Gamble

9780078137143

119

Business Ethics: Decision-Making for Personal Integrity and Social Responsibility, 2e

Hartman

9780078137136

102

International Business, 8e

Hill

9780078137198

93

Organizational Behavior and Management, 9e

Ivancevich

9780073530505

64, 73

Essentials of Contemporary Management, 4e

Jones

9780078137228

55

Entrepreneurial Small Business, 3e

Katz

9780073381572

113, 115

Business and Society: Stakeholders, Ethics, Public Policy, 13e

Lawrence

9780078137150

100

Essentials of Negotiation, 5e

Lewicki

9780073530369

111

Organizational Behavior, 12e

Luthans

9780073530352

64

Annual Editions: Human Resources 10/11, 19e

Maidment

9780073528601

84

Management Strategy: Achieving Sustained Competitive Advantage, 2e

Marcus

9780078137129

119

Employee Benefits, 4e

Martocchio

9780073530529

130

Compensation, 10e

Milkovich

9780073530499

88

Organizational Behavior: Human Behavior at Work, 13e

Newstrom

9780073381497

65

Strategic Management, 12e

Pearce

9780078137167

119

Page 43

E-COMMERCE Page

MANAGEMENT

4

Page

NEW TITLES Annual Editions: Business Ethics, 22e

Richardson

9780073528618

102

Crafting and Executing Strategy: The Quest for Competitive Advantage: Concepts

Thompson

9780073530420

121

2010

Author

ISBN

International Business, 12e

Ball

9780077318833

93

Leadership Communication, 3e

Barrett

9780073377773

109

Human Resource Management, 5e

Bernardin

978007312404

76

Strategic Human Resource Management [UK]

Boselie

9780077119980

86

Labor Relations: Striking a Balance, 3e

Budd

9780073530338

90

Managing Human Resources, 8e

Cascio

9780073530260

76

Supervision: Concepts and Skill-Building, 7e

Certo

9780073381510

63

Ethics and Social Responsibility in Asia [Asian]

Chan

9780071270267

102

Entrepreneurship and Small Firm, 5e [UK]

Deakins

9780077121624

117

Strategic Management: Creating Competitive Advantages, 5e

Dess

9780077246266

119

Strategic Management: Text and Cases, 5e

Dess

9780073530413

120

International Business [Aust]

Dowling

9780074717547

94

Management Strategies and Skills [Aust]

Dwyer

9780070277670

124

Cross-Cultural Management: In Work Organizations, 2e [UK]

French

9781843982432

92

Business Ethics, 2e

Ghillyer

9780073377100

103

Learning and Development, 5e [UK]

Harrison

9781843982166

89

Entrepreneurship, 8e

Hisrich

9780073530321

115

International and Comparative Human Resource Management [UK]

Hollinshead

9780077121600

92

Leadership [UK]

Illes

9780077117368

109

Human Resource Management, 11e

Ivancevich

9780073381466

77

Organizational Behavior, 9e

Kreitner

9780073530451

66

Human Relations, 4e

Lamberton

9780073377049

73

Business, Government and Society: An Asian Perspective [Asian]

Lawrence

9780071288958

100

Negotiation, 6e

Lewicki

9780073381206

111

Negotiation: Readings, Exercises and Cases, 6e

Lewicki

9780073530314

112

Human Relations in Organizations: Applications and Skill Building, 8e

Lussier

9780073381534

74

Annual Editions: Human Resources 09/10, 18e

Maidment

9780073528533

85

Game Embedded Strategy: Signalling and Management Type [Asian]

McNutt

9780071288927

121

Organizational Behavior, 5e

McShane

9780073381237

67

Organizational Behavior on the Pacific Rim, 3e [Aust]

McShane

9780070140271

69

Taking Sides: Clashing Views in Business Ethics and Society, 11e

Newton

9780073527314

103



and Cases, 17e

MANAGEMENT

5

Page

NEW TITLES Employee Training and Development, 5e

Noe

9780073530345

89

Human Resource Management, 7e

Noe

9780073530475

78

The Business Environment, 6e [UK]

Palmer

9780077119720

129

Annual Editions: Entrepreneurship, 6e

Price

9780077386092

116

Annual Editions: Business Ethics 09/10, 21e

Richardson

9780073528557

104

Managing and Leading People, 2e [UK]

Rayner

9781843982173

87

Supervision: Key Link to Productivity, 10e

Rue

9780073381374

63

Cases in Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management [India]

Saiyadain

9780070152571

70, 79

Strategic Management of Technological Innovation, 3e

Schilling

9780073381565

131

Exploring Innovation, 2e [UK]

Smith

9780077121235

133

Taking Sides: Clashing Views in Management, 3e

Street

9780073527321

61

Crafting and Executing Strategy: Text and Readings, 17e

Thompson

9780077247690

123

Asian Leadership Challenges [Asian]

Ulrich

9780071272148

135

Business Journey to the East [Asian]

Wee/Combe

9780071278027

142

2011

Author

ISBN

M: Business with Prep Cards and Online Learning Center Access Card, 2e

Ferrell

9780077374501

161

Business Now

Shah

9780073377285

161

2010

Author

ISBN

Understanding Business, 9e

Nickels

9780073511702

2011

Author

ISBN

Gregg College Keyboarding & Document Processing (GDP), Microsoft Office Word

Ober

9780077319366

167

Gregg College Keyboarding & Document Processing (GDP), Lessons 1-120, 11e

Ober

9780073372198

167

Gregg College Keyboarding & Document Processing (GDP), Microsoft Word 2010

Ober

9780077319403

168

BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Page

BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Page 162

KEYBOARDING & OFFICE TECHNOLOGY





Page

2010, Lessons 1-60, 11e

Lessons 61-120, 11e

6

NEW TITLES KEYBOARDING & OFFICE TECHNOLOGY

2010

Author

ISBN

Office Management [India]

Balachandran

9780070670402

2011

Author

ISBN

Annual Editions: Computers in Society 10/11, 16e

De Palma

9780073528588

2010

Author

ISBN

Business Driven Technology with Premium Content Card, 4e

Baltzan

9780077359355

174

Information Technology for Management [India]

Behl

9780070144927

176

Object-Oriented Systems Analysis and Design Using UML, 4e [UK]

Bennett

9780077125363

181

Annual Editions: Computers in Society 09/10, 15e

De Palma

9780073528540

185

Management Information Systems for the Information Age, 8e

Haag

9780073376783

175

Software Project Management, 5e [UK]

Hughes

9780077122799

183

Management Information SYstems: Text & Cases, 4e [India]

Jawadekar

9780070146624

177

Information Technology for Retailing [India]

Khurana

9780070159228

177

Introduction to Information Systems, 15e

O’Brien

9780073376776

173

2011

Author

ISBN

Contemporary Advertising, 13e

Arens

9780073530031

213

Sports Marketing, 2e

Fullerton

9780073381114

233

ABC’s of Relationship Selling, 11e

Futrell

9780073404844

216

M: Marketing with Premium Content Access Card, 2e

Grewal

9780077386436

193

Sales Force Management, 10e

Johnston

9780073404851

218

Marketing, 10e

Kerin

9780073529936

193

Preface to Marketing Management, 12e

Peter

9780073529967

207

Which Ad Pulled Best?, 10e

Purvis

9780078112072

216

Annual Editions: Marketing 10/11, 33e

Richardson

9780073528595

200

Marketing Strategy: A Decision-Focused Approach, 7e

Walker

9780073381152

210

Page 169

MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS Page 184

MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS Page

MARKETING

7

Page

NEW TITLES MARKETING

2010

Author

ISBN

Sales & Marketing: A Textbook for the Hospitality Industry [India]

Andrews

9780070153233

230

Business to Business Marketing [UK]

Biemans

9780077121891

219

International Marketing [UK]

Clarke

9780077115852

225

International Marketing, 3e [UK]

Ghauri

9780077122850

225

Marketing, 2e

Grewal

9780073380957

193

Essentials of Marketing Research, 2e

Hair

9780073404820

202

Consumer Behavior, 11e

Hawkins

9780073381107

204

Marketing Planning, 2e [UK]

Hollesen

9780077127138

225

Foundations of Marketing, 3e [UK]

Jobber

9780077121907

196

Principles and Practice of Marketing, 6e [UK]

Jobber

9780077123307

197

Relationship Selling, 3e

Johnston

9780073404837

216

Marketing in Asia [Asian]

Kerin

9780071274258

197

Information Technology for Retailing [India]

Khurana

9780070159228

222

Managing Brands [UK]

Laforet

9780077117481

228

Marketing Management

Marshall

9780073529790

207

Events and Mice Management in Asia [Asian]

McCartney

9780071272155

230

Marketing Management: A Strategic Decision-Making Approach, 7e

Mullins

9780073381169

208

Consumer Behavior, 9e

Peter

9780073404769

205

Essentials of Marketing, 12e

Perreault

9780073404813

194

Retailing Management, 3e [India]

Pradhan

9780070152564

223

Retail Merchandising [India]

Pradhan

9780070144972

223

Supply Chain Management for Retailing [India]

Ray

9780070145047

224

Annual Editions: Marketing 09/10, 32e

Richardson

9780073528526

201

Communication for Retail Professionals [India]

Rizvi

9780070146839

224

Marketing Channels: A Malaysian Experience [Asian]

Rosmimah

9789833850631

198

Retail Franchising [India]

Sidhpuria

9780070145030

224

Consumer Behaviour, 2e [Aust]

Webb

9780070278370

206

8

Page

9

BUSINESS COMMUNICATION

Business Communications - Special Topics........................................................21 Business Communications - Supplements..........................................................20 Business English.................................................................................................18 Business Writing..................................................................................................19 Grammar.............................................................................................................19 International Business Communication...............................................................17 Interpersonal Skills..............................................................................................20 Introduction to Business Communication............................................................11 Leadership Communication.................................................................................18 Managerial Communication.................................................................................15 Professional References.....................................................................................22

NEW TITLES BUSINESS COMMUNICATION

2011

Author

ISBN

Managerial Communication: Strategies and Applications, 5e

Hynes

9780073377759

15

Lesikar’s Business Communication: Connecting in a Digital World, 12e

Rentz

9780073377797

11

The Greg Reference Manual: A Manual of Style, Grammar, Usage, and Formatting

Sabin

9780073397108

19

Varner

9780073377742

17

Author

ISBN



Page

Tribute Edition, 11e

Intercultural Communication in the Global Workplace, 5e

BUSINESS COMMUNICATION

2010

Page

Communications at Work: Principles and Practices for Business and the Professions, 10e Adler

9780073385174

11

Leadership Communication, 3e

Barrett

9780073377773

18

Business Communication for the Global Age [Aust]

Crossman

9780070140042

17

M: Business Communication

Flatley

9780077314064

12

Business and Administrative Communication, 9e

Locker

9780073377803

12

10

BUSINESS COMMUNICATION

Introduction to Business Communication



New

™™ New Case Study sidebars within every chapter describe both the communication triumphs and blunders of business and professional communicators. Critical thinking questions,’Critical Analysis,’ following each case, help students analyze communication principles and apply insights to their own lives. ™™ Expanded coverage of important topics such as informal communication networks, how cultural differences affect communication, the appropriate use of “mindless” listening, strategies for addressing sexual harassment, and strategies for communicating with diverse audiences.

*9780073377797*



™™ New pedagogy and resources including end-of-chapter Review Points summarizing key elements clearly and efficiently. Thoroughly updated Instructor’s Resource Manual provides tools to make teaching more efficient and learning more effective. Expanded Online Learning Center (OLC) provides a wealth of new web-based information, readings, and study aids that enhance student success.

International Edition

LESIKAR’S BUSINESS COMMUNICATION Connecting in a Digital World, 12th Edition By Kathryn Rentz, University of Cincinnati, Marie E Flatley, San Diego State University and Paula Lentz 2011 (January 2010) / 640 pages ISBN: 9780073377797 ISBN: 9780071220972 [IE]

™™ Sample Speech Appendix I now contains annotated samples of both informative and persuasive presentations. ™™ To purchase an electronic eBook version of this title, visit www. CourseSmart.com (ISBN 0-07-729394-0).

http://www.mhhe.com/lesikar12e

Contents

(Details unavailable at press time)

Part One: Basics of Business and Professional Communication 1. Communicating at Work 2. Communication, Culture, and Work Part Two: Personal Skills 3. Listening 4. Verbal and Nonverbal Messages 5. Interpersonal Skills Part Three: Interviewing 6. Principles of Interviewing 7. Types of Interviews Part Four: Working in Groups 8. Working in Teams 9. Effective Meetings Part Five: Making Effective Presentations 10. Developing and Organizing the Presentation 11. Verbal and Visual Support in Presentations 12. Delivering the Presentation 13. Informative, Group, and Special-Occasion 14. Types of Business Presentations Appendix I: Sample Presentations Appendix II : Business Writing

New

*9780073385174*



COMMUNICATING AT WORK Principles and Practices for Business and the Professions, 10th Edition

By Ronald Adler, Santa Barbara City College and Jeanne Marquardt Elmhorst, Central New Mexico Community College 2010 (September 2009) / 608 pages ISBN: 9780073385174

http://www.mhhe.com/adler10e As the leading text in its field, Communicating at Work takes a pragmatic approach that applies scholarly principles to real world business situations. Strong multicultural focus, emphasis on working in teams, and thorough coverage of presentational speaking continue to be hallmark features. The tenth edition features a more streamlined organization, new Technology Tip boxes, new Case Study sidebars, updated coverage of intercultural communication, new communication networks, and more. New to this edition

INVITATION TO PUBLISH

™™ More streamlined organization: condensed chapter lineup makes it easier to cover material within an academic term without sacrificing content. Chapter 13 now covers both informative and persuasive presentations as well as guidelines for group and special occasion speaking.

McGraw-Hill is interested in reviewing textbook proposal for publication. Please contact your local McGraw-Hill office or email to [email protected]

™™ New Technology Tip boxes in every chapter show readers how to use a variety of communication tools to achieve their goals. Topics include guidelines for advancing career goals, using blogs, text and instant messaging, and creating an electronic-portfolio and much more.

Visit McGraw-Hill Education (Asia) Website: www.mheducation.asia

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BUSINESS COMMUNICATION New

of Business Messages Chapter 3: Using Visuals in Written and Oral Communication Chapter 4: Using an Appropriate Style PART 3: Writing Effective Messages Chapter 5: Writing Good-News and Neutral Messages Chapter 6: Writing Bad-News Messages Chapter 7: Writing Persuasive Messages PART 4: Writing Effective Reports Chapter 8: Researching and Writing Reports Chapter 9: Writing Short Reports PART 5: Using Oral and Job-Search Skills Chapter 10: Communicating Orally Chapter 11: Communicating in the Job Search

*9780077314064*

m: business communication

By Marie E Flatley, San Diego State University-San Diego and Kathryn Rentz, University of Cincinnati

2010 (January 2009) / 352 pages ISBN: 9780077314064

http://http://www.mhhe.com/flatleym



M: Business Communication is the newest Business Communication textbook that was created with students’ and professors’ needs in mind. A unique approach to a hands-on course, written by the coauthors of Business Communication: Making Connections in a Digital World , 11/e, provides both student and instructor with all the tools needed to navigate through the complexity of the modern business communication environment. M: Business Communication attends to the dynamic, fast-paced, and ever-changing means by which business communication occurs by being the most technologically current and pedagogically effective books in the field. It has realistic examples that are both consumer-and business-oriented.



New

™™ Professors receive a text that contains all the pertinent information - yet in a more condensed format that is easier to cover by students.

International Edition BUSINESS AND ADMINISTRATIVE COMMUNICATION 9th Edition By Kitty O Locker (deceased) and Donna S Kienzler, Iowa State University

Features ™™ Students receive a cost-effective, easy to read, focused text complete with study resources (both print and online) to help them review for tests and apply chapter concepts.

*9780073377803*

2010 (October 2009) / 704 pages ISBN: 9780073377803 ISBN: 9780070167186 [IE]

http://www.mhhe.com/locker9e

™™ Student friendly design – M Business Communication was written and designed with today’s student reader in mind. ™™ The layout and design provides student visual stimulation they’ve come to expect. ™™ The content was written to focus on the key concepts only. ™™ The examples provided have been selected for greater student appeal. ™™ The writing style is highly readable with today’s student reader in mind. ™™ ALL END OF CHAPTER MATERIAL IS LOCATED ONLINE ON THE OLC. ™™ Review Cards are included (in print) in the envelope that comes bound in to each new book. There is at least one Review Card for each chapter. The front of the card asks the student to write what he/she recalls from each of the learning objectives in the chapter. After completing this step, the student turns to the back to review the learning objectives broken down into bulleted lists to check his/her answers. A Practical Application question helps the student to apply new concepts, and the Word Use Review exercise allows the student to test his/her knowledge of commonly confused words. The answers to these application questions are available on the bottom of the card (upside down). The point of these cards is to create useful exercises that actually help students LEARN and remember, as opposed to passively reading (or not reading) the cards. Contents PART 1: Understanding Business Communication Chapter 1:Communicating in the Workplace PART 2: Mastering Writing and Presentation Basics Chapter 2: Understanding the Writing Process and the Main Forms

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Donna Kienzler shares the same vision for the book and research philosophy as Kitty. She uses a student-friendly writing style and strong design element to hold student’s attention. The ninth edition of Business and Communication by Donna Kienzler is a true leader in the business communication field. Beyond covering the broad scope of topics in both oral and written business communication, Locker’s text uses a student-friendly writing style and strong design element to hold student’s attention. Real-world examples and real business applications underscore the relevance and importance of the material presented to the classroom experience and to the students’ careers. The 9th edition also conveys the best possible advice to students through its research base; the author’s reputation as a contributor to this field of study lends an even greater element of “teachability” and relevance to this market-leading title. If schools stress critical thinking and professional development, show them this book. Contents Part One: The Building Blocks of Effective Messages Chapter 1: Succeeding in Business Communication and Management Chapter 2: Adapting Your Message to Your Audience Chapter 3: Building Goodwill Chapter 4: Navigating through the Business Environment Chapter 5: Communicating across Cultures Chapter 6: Working and Writing in Teams Part Two: The Communication Process Chapter 7: Planning, Composing, and Revising Chapter 8: Designing Documents Chapter 9: Creating Visuals and Data Displays Chapter 10: Making Oral Presentations Part Three: Job Hunting Chapter 11: Building Résumés Chapter 12: Applying for a Job Chapter 13: Interviewing for a Job and Writing Follow-Up Messages Part Four: Basic Business Messages Chapter 14: Sharing Informative and Positive Messages

BUSINESS COMMUNICATION 28. Job Application Letters 29. Job Interviews 30. Follow-Up Letters and Calls and Job Offers

Chapter 15: Delivering Negative Messages Chapter 16: Crafting Persuasive Messages Part Five: Proposals and Reports Chapter 17: Planning and Researching for Reports and Proposals Chapter 18: Writing Proposals Chapter 19: Analyzing Information and Writing Reports Appendices A: Formatting Letters, Memos, and E-mail Messages B: Writing Correctly

COMMUNICATION SKILLS By Tracey Bretag, Joanna Crossman and Sarbari Bordia of University of South Australia 2008 ISBN: 9780070144989

McGraw-Hill Australia Title http://www.mhhe.com/au/bretag

International Edition BUSINESS COMMUNICATION Building Critical Skills, 4th Edition By Kitty O Locker (Deceased) and Stephen Kyo Kaczmarek, Columbus State Comm College 2009 (July 2008) / 608 pages ISBN: 9780073377728 ISBN: 9780071280242 [IE]

http://www.mhhe.com/bcs4e A unique approach to a hands-on course, written by the same author of Business and Administrative Communication, this completely new approach is devised and created with the assistance of a community college colleague. The innovative module structure allows instructors to focus on specific skills and provides greater flexibility for short courses and different teaching approaches. While grounded in solid business communication fundamentals, this paperback takes a strong workplace activity orientation which helps students connect what they learn to what they do or will do on the job. Contents Unit 1 Building Blocks for Effective Messages 1. Business Communication, Management, and Success 2. Adapting Your Message to Your Audience 3. Communicating Across Cultures 4. Planning, Writing, and Revising 5. Designing Documents, Slides, and Screens Unit 2 Creating Goodwill 6. You-Attitude 7. Positive Emphasis 8. Reader Benefits Unit 3 Letters, Memos, and E-Mail Messages 9. Formats for Letters and Memos 10. Informative and Positive Messages 11. Negative Messages 12. Persuasive Messages 13. E-Mail Messages Unit 4 Polishing Your Writing 14. Editing for Grammar and Punctuation 15. Choosing the Right Word 16. Revising Sentences and Paragraphs Unit 5 Interpersonal Communication 17. Listening 18. Working and Writing in Teams 19. Planning, Conducting, and Recording Meetings 20. Making Oral Presentations Unit 6 Research, Reports, and Visuals 21. Proposals and Progress Reports 22. Finding, Analyzing, and Documenting Information 23. Short Reports 24. Long Reports 25. Using Visuals Unit 7 Job Hunting 26. Researching Jobs 27. Résumés

COMMUNICATION SKILLS is a practical guide and workbook for higher education students. This title covers all the most important aspects of effective communication and assists students in achieving the best grades and career prospects possible. Communication Skills is divided into two main parts: Academic Communication and Professional Communication. With a focus on the development of improved communication skills, each chapter includes useful key features such as learning objectives, group and individual activities (with answers) and topic summaries. The authors of this text are highly experienced educators who have global teaching experience in Australia, Europe, Asia, the Middle East and North America. The book draws upon their combined experience in teaching business communication to a broad range of students. Fostering key graduate attributes in communication, Communication Skills is the essential text book for students enrolled in higher education programs. Contents PART 1 ACADEMIC COMMUNICATION 1 Effective Reading For Academic Purposes 2 Note-Taking, Paraphrasing And Summarising 3 Essay Writing 4 Academic Conventions: Referencing And Avoiding Plagiarism 5 Improving Your Writing: Grammar And Self-Editing PART 2 PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION 6 Writing Genres 7 Report Writing 8 Business Document Writing 9 Oral Presentation Skills 10 Employment Communication 11 Intercultural Communication

International Edition basic business communications 11th Edition By Raymond V Lesikar, University of North Texas 2008 (November 2006) / 648 pages ISBN: 9780073317090 (with GradeMax) ISBN: 9780071286091 [IE with GradeMax]

http://www.mhhe.com/lesikar11e Business Communication: Making Connections in a Digital World, 11/e by Lesikar, Flatley, and Rentz provides both student and instructor with all the tools needed to navigate through the complexity of the modern business communication environment. At their disposal, teachers have access to an online Tools & Techniques Blog that continually keeps them abreast of the latest research and developments in the field while providing a host of teaching materials. Business Communication attends to the dynamic, fast-paced, and ever-changing means by which business communication occurs by being the most technologically current and pedagogically effective books in the field. It has realistic examples that are both consumer-and business-oriented.

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BUSINESS COMMUNICATION CONTENTS PART ONE: Introduction. Chapter One: Communication in the Workplace. PART TWO: Fundamentals of Business Writing. Chapter Two: Adaptation and the Selection of Words. Chapter Three: Construction of Clear Sentences and Paragraphs. Chapter Four: Writing for Effect. PART THREE: Basic Patterns of Business Messages. Chapter Five: The Writing Process and an Introduction to Business Messages. Chapter Six: Directness in Good-News and Neutral Messages. Chapter Seven: Indirectness in Bad-News Messages. Chapter Eight: Indirectness in Persuasive Messages. Chapter Nine: Strategies in the Job-Search Process. PART FOUR: Fundamentals of Report Writing. Chapter Ten: Basics of Report Writing. Chapter Eleven: Report Structure: The Shorter Forms. Chapter Twelve: Long, Formal Reports. Chapter Thirteen: Graphics. PART FIVE: Other Forms of Business Communication. Chapter Fourteen: Informal Oral Communication. Chapter Fifteen: Public Speaking and Oral Reporting. PART SIX: Cross-Cultural Correctness, Technology, Research. Chapter Sixteen: Techniques of Cross-Cultural Communication. Chapter Seventeen: Correctness of Communication. Chapter Eighteen: Technology-Enabled Communication. Chapter Nineteen: Business Research Methods. Appendixes

International Edition business communication design 2nd Edition By Pamela A Angell, Hudson Valley Community College 2007 (January 2006) ISBN: 9780073223582 (with OLC Premium Content Card) - Out of Print ISBN: 9780071108126 [IE with OLC]

COMMUNICATION SKILLS FOR INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS IN BUSINESS By Tracey Bretag, Joanna Crossman and Sarbari Bordia of University of South Australia 2007 (February 2007) ISBN: 9780074717073

McGraw-Hill Australia Title

http://www.mhhe.com/au/bretag Contents Preface Introduction: The cultural politics of English as an international language Part 1: Academic Communication Chapter 1: Effective reading for academic purposes Chapter 2: Note-taking, paraphrasing and summarising Chapter 3: Essay writing Chapter 4: Academic conventions--referencing and avoiding plagiarism Chapter 5: Improving your writing--grammar and editing Part 2: Professional Communication Chapter 6: Writing genres Chapter 7: Report writing Chapter 8: Business document writing Chapter 9: Oral presentation skills Chapter 10: Employment communication Part 3: Resources--Key Topics in Business Topic 1: Decision making in accounting Topic 2: An introduciton to marketing and the concept of brand Topic 3: Organisational culture Topic 4: Introduction to economics Topic 5: The Australian financial market Topic 6: The common law system in Australia Topic 7: Intercultural communication Topic 8: Globalisation Appendices Appendix 1: Referencing using the Harvard author-date system Appendix 2: Referencing using footnotes (documentary note system) Appendix 3: Standard marking criteria

http://www.mhhe.com/angell2e

International Edition

CONTENTS CH. 1 The Basics. CH. 2 How Business Communicates. CH. 3 Creating Effective Messages. CH. 4 Listening: A Silent Hero. CH. 5 Creating and Using Meaning. CH. 6 Designing Messages with Words. CH. 7 Designing Oral Presentations. CH. 8 Business Writing Design. CH. 9 Direct and Indirect Communication Strategies. CH. 10 The Business of Reports: Informal and Formal Report Writing. CH. 11 Writing Strategies for Reports and Proposals. CH. 12 Culture: Inside and Out. CH. 13 Interpersonal and Collaborative Messages. CH. 14 The Business of Change and Conflict. CH. 15 Creating a Career and Designing Résumés. CH. 16 Interviewing to Get the Job. CH. 17 Creativity and Visual Design. Appendix A Grammar and Punctuation. Appendix B Formatting and Documenting Business Documents. References. Index

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BUSINESS COMMUNICATION AT WORK 3rd Edition By Marilyn Satterwhite, Danville Area Community College and Judith Olson-Sutton, Matc-Truax 2007 (June 2006) / 576 pages ISBN: 9780073314273 ISBN: 9780071287173 [IE]

http://www.mhhe.com/bcw3e Contents Unit 1: Chapter 1: Setting the Stage for Effective Communication. Chapter 2: Choosing the Right Words. Chapter 3: Developing Sentences and Paragraphs. Unit 2: Chapter 4: Developing Listening and Speaking Skills. Chapter 5: Planning and Organizing Business Messages. Chapter 6: Using Technology to Improve Communication. Chapter 7: Formatting Business Messages. Unit 3: Chapter 8: Goodwill Principles and Goodwill Messages. Chapter 9: Messages for Inquiries and Requests. Chapter 10: Claim and Adjustment Messages. Chapter 11: Persuasive Messages. Chapter 12: Order, Credit, and Collection Messages.

BUSINESS COMMUNICATION Unit 4: Chapter 13: Developing Memos and Memo Reports. Chapter 14: Creating Press Releases, Newsletters, and Letters to Public Officials. Chapter 15: Constructing and Presenting Reports. Chapter 16: Preparing Meeting Communications. Unit 5: Chapter 17: Conducting the Job Search. Chapter 18: Selling Yourself to Employers

Citing Section A. Research Section B. Displaying Research Section C. Citing Research KEYS to Handbook Exercises, EOC activities GLOSSARY INDEX



Managerial Communication

International Edition FOUNDATIONS OF BUSINESS COMMUNICATION By Dona Young 2006 / 576 pages ISBN: 9780072979541 ISBN: 9780071116824 [IE]

New

http://www.mhhe.com/djyoung CONTENTS UNIT 1: WRITING SKILLS Chapter 1: Communication and the Writing Process Section A. Communication as Process Section B. The Writing Process Section C. Purpose and Audience Section D. Tone / Writer’s Handbook At-aGlance, Part I: The Mechanics of Writing Chapter 2: What Is Good Writing? Section A. A Simple, Clear and Concise Style Section B. Tone and Style / Writer’s Handbook At-aGlance, Part II: Writing Essentials: Grammar for Writing Chapter 3: Developing and Revising Short Business Messages Section A. Paragraphs Section B. Empty Information Section C. The Process of Revising Section D. Transitions and Connectors UNIT 2: PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION Chapter 4: Office Communications Section A. E-Mail Section B. Business Letters Section C. Memos, Faxes, Voicemail, and Cell Phones / Handbook At-a-Glance, Part III: Formatting Standard Business Documents Chapter 5: Persuasive Communication Section A. The Process of Persuasion Section B. Formal Persuasion Section C. Persuasive Writing Chapter 6: Verbal Communication Skills Section A. Informal Speech Section B. Feedback Section C. Meetings, Agendas, and Round-Table Discussions Section D. Presentations Chapter 7: Global Communications and Technology Section A. Global Communications Section B. Meetings and Phone Conferences Section C. Technology UNIT 3 APPPLICATIONS AND CAREERS Chapter 8: Team Communications Section A. Working in Teams Section B. Developing a Team Strategy Section C. Writing a Proposal / Handbook At-a-Glance, Part IV: Research: Collecting, Conducting, Displaying and Citing Chapter 9: Getting a Job Section A. Job Survival Skills Section B. Networks Section C. Letters of Applications Section D. The Interview Chapter 10: Communicating on the Job Section A. Leadership Section B. Evaluation: Objectives, Action Plans, and Performance Feedback Section C. Purpose Statements APPENDICES / KEYS to CHAPTER EOC ACTIVITIES / THE WRITER’S HANDBOOK / The Writer’s Handbook, Part I: The Mechanics of Writing Section A. The Comma / Section B. The Semicolon Section C. Other Marks Section D. Punctuation Errors / The Writer’s Handbook, Part II: Writing Essentials: Grammar for Writing / Section A. Verb Basics Section B. Pronouns Basics: Case and Point of View Section C. Parallel Structure Section D. Modifiers / Part III: Formatting Standard Business Documents Section A. Formatting Basics: Special Features and White Space Section B. Business Letters Section C. E-Mail and Memos Section D. Agendas and Minutes Section E. Envelopes and Labels / Part IV: Research: Collecting, Conducting, Displaying and

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*9780073377759*

managerial communication Strategies and Applications, 5th Edition By Geraldine E Hynes, Sam Houston State University 2011 (January 2010) / 360 pages ISBN: 9780073377759 (Details unavailable at press time)

International Edition CORPORATE COMMUNICATION 5th Edition By Paul A Argenti, Dartmouth College 2009 (December 2008) / 288 pages ISBN: 9780073377735 ISBN: 9780071276153 [IE]

http://www.mhhe.com/argenti5e Corporate Communication by Paul A. Argenti shows readers the importance of creating a coordinated corporate communication system, and describes how organizations benefit from important strategies and tools to stay ahead of the competition. Throughout the book, cases and examples of company situations relate to the chapter material. These cases provide readers with the opportunity to participate in real decisions that managers had to make on a variety of real problems. Contents Ch. 1 The Changing Environment for Business Case: Google in China Ch. 2 Communicating Strategically Case: Carson Containers Ch. 3 An Overview of the Corporate Communication Function Case: Hewlett Packard Corporation Ch. 4 Identity, Image, Reputation, and Corporate Advertising Case: Jet Blue’s Valentine’s Day Disaster Ch. 5 Corporate Responsibility Case: Starbuck’s Coffee Company Ch. 6 Media Relations Case: Adolph Coors Company Ch. 7 Internal Communications Case: Westwood Publishing Ch. 8 Investor Relations Case: Steelcase, Inc. Ch. 9 Government Relations Case: Disney

BUSINESS COMMUNICATION Ch. 10 Crisis Communication Case: Coca-Cola in India

International Edition MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION Strategies and Applications, 4th Edition By Geraldine Hynes, Sam Houston State University 2008 (February 2007) / 384 pages ISBN: 9780073525044 ISBN: 9780071277334 [IE]

International Edition MANAGEMENT COMMUNICATION Principles and Practice, 3rd Edition

http://www.mhhe.com/hynes4e

By Michael Hattersley and Linda McJannet, Bentley College 2008 (January 2007) / 336 pages ISBN: 9780073525051 ISBN: 9780071259262 [IE]

http://www.mhhe.com/hattersley08 Management Communication, 3/e by Hattersley and McJannet offers a comprehensive, well-researched solution to teaching management communication. This text and casebook includes essential coverage of effective writing and speaking principles. It aims to help the reader master the full range of skills required of a successful manager. Most of the eighteen end-of-chapter case studies were developed at Harvard Business School where Dr. Hattersley headed the Management Communication Department and where Dr. McJannet taught (under her married name, Linda McJ. Micheli). The cases put the reader in the role of decision maker and communicator in actual business situations. While the text emphasizes practical communication skills every manager needs to master, it also includes full chapters on electronic communication, corporate ethics, audience analysis, meeting management, giving and receiving feedback, choosing media, style and tone, intercultural communication, and business and the press. The two concluding chapters provide two style manuals, the first on writing and the second on speaking, through the use of graphics and group presentations. Each is designed to be cross-referenced throughout the course and serve as a valuable resource for readers to refer to throughout their careers. Contents Part 1: Principles of Effective Communication Chapter 1: Foundations of Management Communication Chapter 2: Setting Goals / Case: Yellowtail Marine, Inc. Chapter 3: Audience Analysis / Case: Weymouth Steel Corporation Chapter 4: Point of View / Case: Smith Financial Corporation Chapter 5: Message: Content and Argument / Case: Cuttyhunk Bank (A) Chapter 6: Structure / Case: McGregors Ltd.Department Store Chapter 7: Choosing Media / Case: The Timken Company Chapter 8: Style and Tone / Case: Vanrex, Inc Part 2: Applications Chapter 9: Giving and Receiving Feedback / Case: Bailey and Wick Chapter 10: Managing Meetings / Case: Lincoln Park Redevelopment Project Chapter 11: Communicating Change / Case: Hammermill Paper Company Chapter 12: Communicating with External Audiences / Case A: Oxford Energy / Case B: NutraSweet Chapter 13: Diversity and Intercultural Communication / Case A: Reed-Watkins Pharmaceuticals / Case B: International Oil Chapter 14: Personal and Corporate Ethics / Case A: Hal of Erhardt & Company: One Audit Senior’s Dilemma / Case B: McArthur Place / Chapter 15: Electronic Communication / Case A: The E-Mail Encounter / Case B: Unifone Communications Part 3: Technique Chapter 16: Effective Writing / Style manual to be cross-referenced throughout the course Chapter 17: Effective Speaking / Style manual on speaking, use of graphics, and group presentation to be cross referenced throughout the course / Appendix Case 16: Dotsworth Press Case 17: Fair is Fair, Isn’t it?

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Managerial Communication, 4/e by Hynes focuses on skills and strategies that managers need in today’s workplace. This book continues to stand out in the field for its strategic approach, solid research base, comprehensive range of topics, its even-handed examination of oral and written channels, and its focus on managerial (as opposed to entry-level) competencies. The overriding principle for the revision was to preserve the book’s key strengths while bringing it in line with the early twenty-first century workplace. The chapters have been streamlined and condensed to meet the needs of a busy contemporary manager and content was added to reflect current business practices. Contents Part 1 – Managing in Contemporary Organizations Chapter 1 – The Role of Communication in Contemporary Organizations Chapter 2 – The Managerial Communication Process Chapter 3 – Technologically Mediated Communication Part 2 – Managerial Writing Strategies Chapter 4 – Contemporary Managerial Writing Chapter 5 – Routine Messages Chapter 6 – Management Reports and Proposals Part 3 – Strategies for Understanding Messages Chapter 7 – Managerial Listening Chapter 8 – Nonverbal Communication Chapter 9 – Intercultural Managerial Communication Part 4 – Interpersonal Communication Strategies Chapter 10 – Conflict Management Chapter 11 – Managerial Negotiation Chapter 12 – Conducting Interviews Part 5 – Group Communication Strategies Chapter 13 – Managing Meetings and Teams Chapter 14 – Making Formal Presentations

Complimentary copies Complimentary desk copies are available for course adoption only. To request for a review copy: ƒƒ contact your local McGraw-Hill Representatives ƒƒ fax the Examination Copy Request Form ƒƒ email to [email protected] ƒƒ submit online at www.mheducation.asia Visit McGraw-Hill Education Website: www.mheducation.asia

BUSINESS COMMUNICATION

International Business Communication

International Edition INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION IN THE GLOBAL MARKETPLACE 4th Edition By Iris Varner, Illinois State University and Linda Beamer, California State University-Los Angeles 2008 (November 2006) / 448 pages ISBN: 9780073525068 ISBN: 9780071259484 [IE]

New

Intercultural Communication in the Global Workplace, 4/e by Beamer and Varner addresses the issues of culture and communication within the context of international business. The text provides examples of how cultural values and practices impact business communication. The authors explore the relationships among the cultural environments of the firm and the structure of the firm. They examine how companies and individuals communicate, and concentrate on the underlying cultural reasons for behavior. This approach helps readers develop an ability to work successfully within an environment of cultural diversity both at home and abroad.

*9780073377742*

INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION IN THE GLOBAL WORKPLACE 5th Edition By Iris Varner, Illinois State University and Linda Beamer 2011 (April 2010) / 496 pages ISBN: 9780073377742

Contents

(Details unavailable at press time)

New



1. Culture and Communication 2. The Role of Language in Intercultural Business Communication 3. Getting to Know Another Culture 4. Self and Groups in Business Cultures 5. Organizing Messages to Other Cultures 6. Nonverbal Language in Intercultural Communication 7. Cultural Rules for Establishing Relationships 8. Information, Decisions, and Solutions 9. Intercultural Negotiation 10. Legal and Governmental Considerations in Intercultural Business Communication 11. The Influence of Business Structures and Corporate Culture on Intercultural Business Communication 12. Intercultural Dynamics in the International Company Appendix: Case 1: What Else Can Go Wrong? Case 2: Hana: A Joint Venture between Health Snacks and Toka Foods

*9780070140042*

business communication for the global age By Joanna Crossman 2010 (February 2010) ISBN: 9780070140042

McGraw-Hill Australia Title CONTENTS PART A: CORE COMMUNICATION CONCEPTS Chapter 1: An overview of communication theories Chapter 2: Interpersonal Communication Chapter 3: Nonverbal Communication Chapter 4: Intercultural Communication PART B: COMMUNICATION CONTEXTS Chapter 5: Organisational Communication Chapter 6: Communication in Groups Chapter 7: Communication and International and Cultural Leadership Chapter 8: Negotiation Chapter 9: Communication online PART C: COMMUNICATING WITH AUDIENCES Chapter 10: Language, Culture and Communication Chapter 11: Discourse Communities and Shared Frameworks Chapter 12: Preparing to Communicate with Audiences Chapter 13: Communication in Writing Chapter 14: Communicating Orally

INVITATION TO PUBLISH McGraw-Hill is interested in reviewing textbook proposal for publication. Please contact your local McGraw-Hill office or email to [email protected] Visit McGraw-Hill Education (Asia) Website: www.mheducation.asia

17

BUSINESS COMMUNICATION



Leadership Communication



New

B – The Business of Grammar C – Usage Self-Assessment D – Successful Case Analysis and Discussion

Business English

*9780073377773*

International Edition International Edition

LEADERSHIP COMMUNICATION 3rd Edition

BUSINESS ENGLISH Writing in the Global Workplace

By Deborah Barrett, Rice University 2010 (November 2009) / 464 pages ISBN: 9780073377773 ISBN: 9780071267427 [IE]

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